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WUSTL Neuroscience Publications Archive - August 2013

 August 2013

Scopus weekly report:

August 16

August 21

August 21, 2013


Katz, R.T.a , Johnson, C.B.b c
Life care planning for the child with cerebral palsy
(2013) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 24 (3), pp. 491-505. 
a Washington University School of Medicine, 4660 Maryland Avenue, Suite 250, St Louis, MO 63108, United States
b OSC Vocational Systems, Inc, 10132 Northeast 185th Street, Bothell, WA 98011, United States
c International Academy of Life Care Planners, International Association of Rehabilitation Professionals, 1926 Waukegan Road, Suite 1, Glenview, IL 60025-1770, United States

A life care plan may be useful to plan the needs of the disabled child with cerebral palsy. A cost analysis for a life care plan depends on the life expectancy of the child, and careful review of the needs of the child. A wide variety of support services may be available in the public sector. Key physical disabilities are associated with diminished life span, as are diminished cognitive abilities, even in the absence of physical impairment. The life care plan must follow the generally accepted and peer-reviewed methodology, with an appropriate foundation for each item recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Cerebral palsy;  Life care planning;  Life expectancy

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

Scullin, M.K.a b , McDaniel, M.A.a , Shelton, J.T.a c
The Dynamic Multiprocess Framework: Evidence from prospective memory with contextual variability
(2013) Cognitive Psychology, 67 (1-2), pp. 55-71. 
a Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, United States
b Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, United States
c Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee-Chattanooga, United States

The ability to remember to execute delayed intentions is referred to as prospective memory. Previous theoretical and empirical work has focused on isolating whether a particular prospective memory task is supported either by effortful monitoring processes or by cue-driven spontaneous processes. In the present work, we advance the Dynamic Multiprocess Framework, which contends that both monitoring and spontaneous retrieval may be utilized dynamically to support prospective remembering. To capture the dynamic interplay between monitoring and spontaneous retrieval, we had participants perform many ongoing tasks and told them that their prospective memory cue may occur in any context. Following either a 20-min or a 12-h retention interval, the prospective memory cues were presented infrequently across three separate ongoing tasks. The monitoring patterns (measured as ongoing task cost relative to a between-subjects control condition) were consistent and robust across the three contexts. There was no evidence for monitoring prior to the initial prospective memory cue; however, individuals who successfully spontaneously retrieved the prospective memory intention, thereby realizing that prospective memory cues could be expected within that context, subsequently monitored. These data support the Dynamic Multiprocess Framework, which contends that individuals will engage monitoring when prospective memory cues are expected, disengage monitoring when cues are not expected, and that when monitoring is disengaged, a probabilistic spontaneous retrieval mechanism can support prospective remembering. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Cognitive control;  Intentions;  Monitoring;  Prospective memory;  Spontaneous retrieval

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Holtzman, D.M., Herz, J., Bu, G.
Apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein E receptors: normal biology and roles in Alzheimer disease.
(2012) Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2 (3), pp. a006312. Cited 22 times.

Department of Neurology, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD); the ε4 allele increases risk and the ε2 allele is protective. In the central nervous system (CNS), apoE is produced by glial cells, is present in high-density-like lipoproteins, interacts with several receptors that are members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, and is a protein that binds to the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. There are a variety of mechanisms by which apoE isoform may influence risk for AD. There is substantial evidence that differential effects of apoE isoform on AD risk are influenced by the ability of apoE to affect Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain. Other mechanisms are also likely to play a role in the ability of apoE to influence CNS function as well as AD, including effects on synaptic plasticity, cell signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and neuroinflammation. ApoE receptors, including LDLRs, Apoer2, very low-density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs), and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) appear to influence both the CNS effects of apoE as well as Aβ metabolism and toxicity. Therapeutic strategies based on apoE and apoE receptors may include influencing apoE/Aβ interactions, apoE structure, apoE lipidation, LDLR receptor family member function, and signaling. Understanding the normal and disease-related biology connecting apoE, apoE receptors, and AD is likely to provide novel insights into AD pathogenesis and treatment.

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus


August 16, 2013


Zhu, J.-X.a d , Xu, F.-Y.a , Xu, W.-J.a , Zhao, Y.b , Qu, C.-L.a , Tang, J.-S.a , Barry, D.M.c , Du, J.-Q.a , Huo, F.-Q.a 
The role of α2 adrenoceptor in mediating noradrenaline action in the ventrolateral orbital cortex on allodynia following spared nerve injury
(2013) Experimental Neurology, 248, pp. 381-386. 
a Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, College of Medicine, Yanta Road W. 76#, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China b Department of Forensic Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, College of Medicine, Yanta Road W. 76#, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China
c Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
d Department of Physiology, Xi'an Medical University, Xinwang Road 1#, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China

The present study examined the role of α2 adrenoceptor in mediating noradrenaline action in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) on allodynia induced by spared nerve injury (SNI) in the rat. The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured using von-Frey filaments. Microinjection of noradrenaline (1, 2, 4μg in 0.5μl) into the VLO, contralateral to the site of nerve injury, reduced allodynia; PWT increased in a dose-dependent manner. Similar to noradrenaline, microinjection of selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine into the same VLO site also reduced allodynia, and was blocked by selective α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Furthermore, administration of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline or picrotoxin to the VLO significantly enhanced clonidine-induced inhibition of allodynia, while GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or THIP (2,5,6,7-retrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride) attenuated clonidine-induced inhibition. These results suggest that noradrenaline acting in the VLO can potentially reduce allodynia induced by SNI, and this effect is mediated by α2 adrenoceptor. Moreover, GABAergic disinhibition may participate in α2 receptor mediating effects in neuropathic pain in the central nervous system. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
α2 adrenoceptor;  Allodynia;  GABAergic modulation;  Neuropathic pain;  Noradrenaline;  Ventrolateral orbital cortex

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Foo, L.C.a , Dougherty, J.D.b 
Aldh1L1 is Expressed by Postnatal Neural Stem Cells In Vivo
(2013) GLIA, 61 (9), pp. 1533-1541. 

a Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Star, Singapore
b Department of Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

The metabolic enzyme for folate, Aldh1L1, has been shown to be expressed robustly in astrocytes of the brain. It is now well accepted that astrocytes in certain regions of the adult brain also serve as neural stem cells. Here, we examined whether Aldh1L1 is also expressed in postnatal neural stem cells. In vitro, cells in neural stem cell culture conditions have robust Aldh1L1 promoter activity. In vivo, in the adult brain, astroctyes in neurogenic regions express Aldh1L1 in a pattern consistent with inclusion in neural stem cells, and analysis of Aldh1L1+ cell transcriptome profiles from neurogenic regions reveal a robust enrichment of known regulators of neurogenesis. Genetic fate mapping with Aldh1L1 BAC Cre animals reveals adult-born neuroblasts of the rostral migratory stream are derived from Aldh1L1 expressing cells, as are sporadic neurons in other regions of the brain. Combining these lines of evidence from transgenic animals, cell culture, transcriptome profiling, and fate mapping, we conclude that Aldh1L1 is also expressed in neural stem cells in the brain. These findings may influence the future design of experiments utilizing Aldh1L1 genetic tools, and also suggest existing Aldh1L1 bacTRAP mice may be of use for further experiments profiling neural stem cells in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Author Keywords
Aldh1L1;  Cre;  Microarray;  TRAP

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Everaert, D.G.a , Stein, R.B.a , Abrams, G.M.b , Dromerick, A.W.c , Francisco, G.E.d , Hafner, B.J.e , Huskey, T.N.f , Munin, M.C.g , Nolan, K.J.h i , Kufta, C.V.j 
Effect of a foot-drop stimulator and ankle-foot orthosis on walking performance after stroke: A multicenter randomized controlled trial
(2013) Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27 (7), pp. 579-591. 

a University of Alberta, 5005 Katz-Rexall Centre, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada
b University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States
c National Rehabilitation Hospital, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States
d University of Texas Health Sciences Center, TIRR Memorial Hermann, Houston, TX, United States
e University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
f Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
g University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
h Kessler Foundation Research Center, West Orange, NJ, United States
i UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States
j Innovative Neurotronics Inc, Austin, TX, United States

Background. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation in the management of foot drop after stroke. Objective. To compare changes in walking performance with the WalkAide (WA) foot-drop stimulator and a conventional ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). Methods. Individuals with stroke within the previous 12 months and residual foot drop were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 parallel arms for 12 weeks (6 weeks/device): arm 1 (WA-AFO), n = 38; arm 2 (AFO-WA), n = 31; arm 3 (AFO-AFO), n = 24. Primary outcomes were walking speed and Physiological Cost Index for the Figure-of-8 walking test. Secondary measures included 10-m walking speed and perceived safety during this test, general mobility, and device preference for arms 1 and 2 for continued use. Walking tests were performed with (On) and without a device (Off) at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. Results. Both WA and AFO had significant orthotic (On-Off difference), therapeutic (change over time when Off), and combined (change over time On vs baseline Off) effects on walking speed. An AFO also had a significant orthotic effect on Physiological Cost Index. The WA had a higher, but not significantly different therapeutic effect on speed than an AFO, whereas an AFO had a greater orthotic effect than the WA (significant at 12 weeks). Combined effects on speed after 6 weeks did not differ between devices. Users felt as safe with the WA as with an AFO, but significantly more users preferred the WA. Conclusions. Both devices produce equivalent functional gains. © The Author(s) 2013.

Author Keywords
drop foot;  functional electrical stimulation;  mobility;  physiological cost;  stroke rehabilitation;  walking speed

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Glukhov, A.V.a , Uchida, K.b c , Efimov, I.R.a , Nichols, C.G.b c 
Functional roles of KATP channel subunits in metabolic inhibition
(2013) Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 62, pp. 90-98. 

a Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
b Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University, School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
c Center for the Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases, Washington University, School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) activation can drastically shorten action potential duration (APD) in metabolically compromised myocytes. We showed previously that SUR1 with Kir6.2 forms the functional channel in mouse atria while Kir6.2 and SUR2A predominate in ventricles. SUR1 is more sensitive to metabolic stress than SUR2A, raising the possibility that KATP in atria and ventricles may respond differently to metabolic stress. Action potential duration (APD) and calcium transient duration (CaTD) were measured simultaneously in both atria and ventricles by optical mapping of the posterior surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts from C57BL wild-type (WT; n=11), Kir6.2-/- (n=5), and SUR1-/- (n=6) mice during metabolic inhibition (MI, 0mM glucose+2mM sodium cyanide). After variable delay, MI led to significant shortening of APD in WT hearts. On average, atrial APD shortened by 60.5±2.7% at 13.1±2.1min (n=6, p<0.01) after onset of MI. Ventricular APD shortening (56.4±10.0% shortening at 18.2±1.8min) followed atrial APD shortening. In SUR1-/- hearts (n=6), atrial APD shortening was abolished, but ventricular shortening (65.0±15.4% at 25.33±4.48min, p<0.01) was unaffected. In Kir6.2-/- hearts, two disparate responses to MI were observed; 3 of 5 hearts displayed slight shortening of APD in the ventricles (24±3%, p<0.05) and atria (39.0±1.9%, p<0.05) but this shortening occurred later and to much less extent than in WT (p<0.05). Marked prolongation of ventricular APD was observed in the remaining hearts (327% and 489% prolongation) and was associated with occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The results confirm that Kir6.2 contributes to APD shortening in both atria and ventricle during metabolic stress, and that SUR1 is required for atrial APD shortening while SUR2A is required for ventricular APD shortening. Importantly, the results show that the presence of SUR1-dependent KATP in the atria results in the action potential being more susceptible to metabolically driven shortening than the ventricle. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Fowler, P.J.a , Henry, D.B.b , Schoeny, M.c , Landsverk, J.d , Chavira, D.e , Taylor, J.J.e 
Inadequate Housing Among Families Under Investigation for Child Abuse and Neglect: Prevalence from a National Probability Sample
(2013) American Journal of Community Psychology, 52 (1-2), pp. 106-114. 

a George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1196, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, 63130, United States
b Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
c School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
d Child and Adolescent Services Research Center, Rady Children's Hospital - San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States
e DePaul University, Chicago, IL, United States

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate housing that threaten out-of-home placement among families under investigation by child welfare. Data came from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of child welfare-involved families. Child protective services caseworkers as well as caregivers provided information on families whose child remained in the home after initial investigation (N = 3,867). Multilevel latent class analyses tested the presence of inadequately housed subgroups using 4 housing problem indicators at baseline. Logistic regressions assessed convergent and predictive validity. A two class latent solution best fit the data. Findings indicated that inadequate housing contributed to risk for out-of-home placement in approximately 16 % of intact families under investigation by child protective services. These families were 4 times more likely to need housing services 12 months later. Federal legislation emphasizes integration of social services as necessary to end homelessness. This study demonstrates overlap across public agencies. Enhanced coordination of child welfare and housing services facilitates interventions to prevent and mitigate homelessness. © 2013 Society for Community Research and Action.

Author Keywords
Child welfare;  Homelessness;  Housing;  Latent class analysis;  Policy;  Systems of care

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Kurby, C.A.a , Zacks, J.M.b 
The activation of modality-specific representations during discourse processing
(2013) Brain and Language, 126 (3), pp. 338-349. Article in Press. 

a Grand Valley State University, Department of Psychology, 2224 Au Sable Hall, Allendale, MI 49401, United States
b Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Psychology, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States

Previous research has shown that readers generate mental images of events. Most studies have investigated imagery during the reading of short texts, which also included explicit judgment tasks. In two fMRI studies, we assessed whether modality-specific imagery occurs during naturalistic, . discourse comprehension. We identified clauses in the texts that elicited auditory, motor, or visual imagery. In both studies, reading motor imagery clauses was associated with increases in activity in left postcentral and precentral sulci, and reading auditory imagery clauses was associated with increases in left superior temporal gyrus and perisylvian language-related regions. Study 2 compared presentation of connected discourse to a condition in which unconnected sentences were presented, preventing the establishment of global coherence. Sensorimotor imagery was strongest when readers were able to generate a globally coherent discourse representation. Overall, these results suggest that modality-specific imagery occurs during discourse comprehension and it is dependent on the development of discourse-level representations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Discourse comprehension;  Imagery;  Language comprehension;  Neuroimaging;  Perceptual simulation

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Schaefer, S.Y.a , Patterson, C.B.b , Lang, C.E.a 
Transfer of training between distinct motor tasks after stroke: Implications for task-specific approaches to upper-extremity neurorehabilitation
(2013) Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 27 (7), pp. 602-612. 

a Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8502, St Louis, MO 63108, United States
b Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States

Background. Although task-specific training is emerging as a viable approach for recovering motor function after stroke, there is little evidence for whether the effects of such training transfer to other functional motor tasks not directly practiced in therapy. Objective. The purpose of the current study was to test whether training on one motor task in individuals with chronic hemiparesis poststroke would transfer to untrained tasks that were either spatiotemporally similar or different. Methods. In all, 11 participants with chronic mild to moderate hemiparesis following stroke completed 5 days of supervised massed practice of a feeding task with their affected side. Performance on the feeding task, along with 2 other untrained functional upper-extremity motor tasks (sorting, dressing) was assessed before and after training. Results. Performance of all 3 tasks improved significantly after training exclusively on 1 motor task. The amount of improvement in the untrained tasks was comparable and was not dependent on the degree of similarity to the trained task. Conclusions. Because the number and type of tasks that can be practiced are often limited within standard stroke rehabilitation, results from this study will be useful for designing task-specific training plans to maximize therapy benefits. © The Author(s) 2013.

Author Keywords
motor learning;  physical therapy;  stroke rehabilitation;  task-specific training;  transfer;  upper extremity

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Wintermark, M.a , Sanelli, P.C.b , Albers, G.W.c , Bello, J.A.d , Derdeyn, C.P.e f , Hetts, S.W.g , Johnson, M.H.h , Kidwell, C.S.i , Lev, M.H.j , Liebeskind, D.S.k , Rowley, H.A.l , Schaefer, P.W.j , Sunshine, J.L.m , Zaharchuk, G.n , Meltzer, C.C.o 
Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients. A Joint Statement by the American Society of Neuroradiology, the American College of Radiology and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery
(2013) JACR Journal of the American College of Radiology, . Article in Press. 

a Division of Neuroradiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
b Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, NewYork Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA
c Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
d Division of Neuroradiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
e Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St Louis, Missouri, USA
f Stroke and Cerebrovascular Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
g San Francisco General Hospital and San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
h Division of Neuroradiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
i Georgetown University Stroke Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
j Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology (P.W.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
k University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Neurology, Stroke Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
l Division of Neuroradiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
m Division of Neuroradiology, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
n Division of Neuroradiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
o Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

In the article entitled "Imaging Recommendations for Acute Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients: A Joint Statement by the American Society of Neuroradiology, the American College of Radiology and the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery", we are proposing a simple, pragmatic approach that will allow the reader to develop an optimal imaging algorithm for stroke patients at their institution. © 2013 American College of Radiology.

Author Keywords
catheter angiography;  computed tomography;  magnetic resonance imaging;  Stroke;  thrombolysis

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Wu, X.a , Eggebrecht, A.T.b , Culver, J.P.b , Zhan, Y.a , Basevi, H.a , Dehghani, H.a 
Quantitative evaluation of registration methods for atlas-based Diffuse Optical Tomography
(2013) Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 8799, art. no. 87990F, . 

a School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
b Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4525 Scott Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

In Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT), an atlas-based model can be used as an alternative to a subject-specific anatomical model for recovery of brain activity. The main step of the generation of atlas-based subject model is the registration of atlas model to the subject head. The accuracy of the DOT then relies on the accuracy of registration method. In this work, 11 registration methods are quantitatively evaluated. The registration method with EEG 10/20 systems with 19 landmarks and non-iterative point to point algorithm provides approximately 1.4 mm surface error and is considered as the most efficient registration method. © 2013 OSA-SPIE.

Author Keywords
Atlas-based model;  Diffuse optical tomography;  Registration

Document Type: Conference Paper
Source: Scopus

Karampelas, I.H.a , Furlani, E.P.a b , Nunez, A.c d , Vizzeri, G.e 
Multiscale biomechanical modeling of the human eye
(2013) Technical Proceedings of the 2013 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo, NSTI-Nanotech 2013, 2, pp. 354-357. 

a Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, United States
b Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo SUNY, United States
c Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, United States
d Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St. Mary's Good Samaritan Regional Health Center, United States
e Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, United States

A multiscale modeling approach is presented for advancing understanding of the biomechanical behavior of the human eye under various physiological conditions. The approach involves the development of large and small scale numerical models to predict stress and strain throughout the eye and its constituent anatomical structures that span length scales ranging from centimeters to microns. The numerical models are based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis combined with a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) capability as well finite element-based structural analysis. Preliminary modeling results of pressure-induced tissue deformation are demonstrated via application to an idealized eye geometry. A physical cadaveric eye model that will be used for model validation is also presented. A discussion is given of challenges and opportunities of using this approach to advance understanding of biomechanical behavior of the human eye.

Author Keywords
Eye biomechanics;  ICP;  Intracranial fluid structure interactions;  Intracranial pressure;  Intraocular pressure;  IOP;  ONSD;  Optic nerve sheath diameter;  Optic nerve stress;  Stress and strain of eye tissue

Document Type: Conference Paper
Source: Scopus

Bui, D.C., Myerson, J., Hale, S.
Note-taking with computers: Exploring alternative strategies for improved recall
(2013) Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (2), pp. 299-309. 

Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, United States

Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notesby hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the best recall on immediate tests, and the subsequent experiments focused on note-taking using computers. Experiment 2 showed that taking organized notes produced the best recall on delayed tests. In Experiment 3, however, when participants were given the opportunity to study their notes, those who had tried to transcribe the lecture showed better recall on delayed teststhan those who had taken organized notes. Correlational analyses of data from all 3 experiments revealed that for those who took organized notes, working memory predicted note-quantity, which predicted recall on both immediate and delayed tests. For those who tried to transcribe the lecture, in contrast, only note-quantity was a consistent predictor of recall. These results suggest that individuals who have poor working memory (an ability traditionally thought to be importantfor note-taking) can still take effective notes if they use a note-taking strategy (transcribing using a computer) that can help level the playing field for students of diverse cognitive abilities. ©2012 American Psychological Association.

Author Keywords
Computers;  Individual differences;  Note quantity and quality;  Note-taking;  Working memory

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Moeckel, D., Grange, D.K., Wambach, J.A.
Index of suspicion in the nursery: Case 1: Neural Tube Defect in infant of epileptic mother
(2013) NeoReviews, 14 (8), pp. e412-e414. 

Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis Children's Hospital, St Louis, MO, United States

Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus

Weiner, M.W.a b c d e , Veitch, D.P.a , Aisen, P.S.f , Beckett, L.A.g , Cairns, N.J.h i , Green, R.C.j , Harvey, D.g , Jack, C.R.k, Jagust, W.l , Liu, E.m , Morris, J.C.f , Petersen, R.C.n , Saykin, A.J.o p , Schmidt, M.E.q , Shaw, L.r , Shen, L.o , Siuciak, J.A.s , Soares, H.t , Toga, A.W.u , Trojanowski, J.Q.v w x y 
The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A review of papers published since its inception
(2013) Alzheimer's and Dementia, . Article in Press. 

a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, San Francisco, CA, USA
b Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
c Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
d Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
e Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
f Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
g Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
h Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA
i Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA
j Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
k Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
l Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
m Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, South San Francisco, CA, USA
n Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
o Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
p Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
q Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Janssen Research and Development, Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium
r Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
s The Biomarkers Consortium, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
t Clinical Biomarkers, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT, USA
u Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
v Institute on Aging, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
w Alzheimer's Disease Core Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
x Udall Parkinson's Research Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
y Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Center for Neurodegenerative Research, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (5) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Baseline cognitive and/or MRI measures generally predicted future decline better than other modalities, whereas MRI measures of change were shown to be the most efficient outcome measures; (6) the confirmation of the AD risk loci CLU, CR1, and PICALM and the identification of novel candidate risk loci; (7) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Europe, Asia, and Australia; (8) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker data with clinical data from ADNI to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (9) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world. The ADNI study was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and a renewal of ADNI (ADNI-2) in October 2010 through to 2016, with enrollment of an additional 550 participants. © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association.

Author Keywords
Alzheimer's disease;  Amyloid;  Biomarker;  Mild cognitive impairment;  Tau

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Davidge, K.M., Yee, A., Kahn, L.C., Mackinnon, S.E.
Median to Radial Nerve Transfers for Restoration of Wrist, Finger, and Thumb Extension
(2013) Journal of Hand Surgery, . Article in Press. 

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University of St. Louis, St. Louis; and Rehabilitation Institute of St. Louis, St. Louis, MO

Radial nerve injury results in loss of wrist, finger, and thumb extension. Traditionally, radial nerve palsies that fail to recover spontaneously have been reconstructed with tendon transfers or nerve grafts. Nerve transfers are a novel approach to the surgical management of Sunderland grade IV and V radial nerve injuries. We describe our technique for median to radial nerve transfers. In this procedure, the flexor digitorum superficialis nerve is transferred to the extensor carpi radialis brevis nerve for wrist extension, and the flexor carpi radialis nerve is transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve for finger and thumb extension. Our experience with these nerve transfers has demonstrated excellent outcomes up to 10 months after injury. Indeed, unlike tendon transfers, median to radial nerve transfers have the potential to restore normal radial nerve function, including independent finger motion. Tension-free nerve coaptation and postoperative motor re-education are critical factors to achieving these successful outcomes. © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand.

Author Keywords
nerve transfers;  Radial nerve palsy

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Guilliams, K.a b , Rosen, M.c , Buttram, S.d , Zempel, J.a , Pineda, J.a b , Miller, B.b , Shoykhet, M.b 
Hypothermia for pediatric refractory status epilepticus
(2013) Epilepsia, . Article in Press. 

a Division of Pediatric and Developmental Neurology Department of Neurology Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A
b Division of Critical Care Medicine Department of Pediatrics Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A
c School of Medicine Washington University in St. Louis St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A
d Division of Critical Care Medicine Department of Child Health University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix, Arizona U.S.A

Purpose: Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a life-threatening emergency, demonstrating, by definition, significant pharmacoresistance. We describe five cases of pediatric RSE treated with mild hypothermia. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of records of children who received hypothermia for RSE at two tertiary-care pediatric hospitals between 2009 and 2012. Key Findings: Five children with RSE received mild hypothermia (32-35°C). Hypothermia reduced seizure burden during and after treatment in all cases. Prior to initiation of hypothermia, four children (80%) received pentobarbital infusions to treat RSE, but relapsed after pentobarbital discontinuation. No child relapsed after treatment with hypothermia. One child died after redirection of care. Remaining four children were discharged. Significance: This is the largest pediatric case series reporting treatment of RSE with mild hypothermia. Hypothermia decreased seizure burden during and after pediatric RSE and may prevent RSE relapse. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

Author Keywords
Children;  Cooling;  Pharmacoresistance;  Seizures

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Cheng, H.a , Wang, M.a , Li, J.-L.a , Cairns, N.J.b , Han, X.a 
Specific changes of sulfatide levels in individuals with pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease: An early event in disease pathogenesis
(2013) Journal of Neurochemistry, . Article in Press. 

a Diabetes and Obesity Research Center Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute Orlando, Florida USA
b Department of Pathology and Immunology Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, Missouri USA

To explore the hypothesis that alterations in cellular membrane lipids are present at the stage of pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., cognitively normal at death, but with AD neuropathology), we performed targeted shotgun lipidomics of lipid extracts from post-mortem brains of subjects with pre-clinical AD. We found sulfatide levels were significantly lower in subjects with pre-clinical AD compared to those without AD neuropathology. We also found that the level of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid was marginally lower at this stage of AD, whereas changes of the ceramide levels were undetectable with the available samples. These results indicate that cellular membrane defects are present at the earliest stages of AD pathogenesis and also suggest that sulfatide loss is among the earliest events of AD development, while alterations in the levels of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid and ceramide occur relatively later in disease. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

Author Keywords
Ceramide;  Membrane lipids;  Plasmalogen;  Pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease;  Shotgun lipidomics;  Sulfatide

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Li, J.-S.a , Dasanayake, I.a , Ruths, J.b 
Control and synchronization of neuron ensembles
(2013) IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 58 (8), art. no. 6472024, pp. 1919-1930. 

a Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
b Engineering Systems and Design Pillar, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 138682 Singapore, Singapore

Synchronization of oscillations is a phenomenon prevalent in natural, social, and engineering systems. Controlling synchronization of oscillating systems is motivated by a wide range of applications from surgical treatment of neurological diseases to the design of neurocomputers. In this paper, we study the control of an ensemble of uncoupled neuron oscillators described by phase models. We examine controllability of such a neuron ensemble for various phase models and, furthermore, study the related optimal control problems. In particular, by employing Pontryagin's maximum principle, we analytically derive optimal controls for spiking single- and two-neuron systems, and analyze the applicability of the latter to an ensemble system. Finally, we present a robust computational method for optimal control of spiking neurons based on pseudospectral approximations. The methodology developed here is universal to the control of general nonlinear phase oscillators. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Author Keywords
Controllability;  Lie algebra;  Optimal control;  Pseudospectral methods;  Spiking neurons

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Meijer, A.a , Conradi, H.J.b , Bos, E.H.a , Anselmino, M.c , Carney, R.M.d , Denollet, J.e , Doyle, F.f , Freedland, K.E.d , Grace, S.L.g , Hosseini, S.H.h , Lane, D.A.i , Pilote, L.j , Parakh, K.k , Rafanelli, C.l , Sato, H.m , Steeds, R.P.n , Welin, C.o , De Jonge, P.a 
Adjusted prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: Individual patient data meta-analysis
(2013) British Journal of Psychiatry, 203 (2), pp. 90-102. 

a Interdisciplinary Centre for Psychiatric Epidemiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands
b Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
c Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy
d Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, St Louis, United States
e Centre of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands
f Division of Population Health Sciences (Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine), Royal College of Surg in Ireland, Ireland
g School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
h Psychiatry and Science Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
i University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Birmingham, United Kingdom
j Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada
k Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States
l Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
m School of Human Welfare Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya, Japan
n Department of Cardiology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom
o Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlengrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, St.Gothenburg, Sweden

Background: The association between depression after myocardial infarction and increased risk of mortality and cardiac morbidity may be due to cardiac disease severity. Aims: To combine original data from studies on the association between post-infarction depression and prognosis into one database, and to investigate to what extent such depression predicts prognosis independently of disease severity. Method: An individual patient data meta-analysis of studies was conducted using multilevel, multivariable Cox regression analyses. Results: Sixteen studies participated, creating a database of 10 175 post-infarction cases. Hazard ratios for post-infarction depression were 1.32 (95% CI 1.26-1.38, P<0.001) for allcause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI 1.14-1.24, P<0.001) for cardiovascular events. Hazard ratios adjusted for disease severity were attenuated by 28% and 25% respectively. Conclusions: The association between depression following myocardial infarction and prognosis is attenuated after adjustment for cardiac disease severity. Still, depression remains independently associated with prognosis, with a 22% increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular events per standard deviation in depression z-score.

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

Wells, A.a , Lagomasino, I.T.b , Palinkas, L.A.c , Green, J.M.b , Gonzalez, D.d 
Barriers to depression treatment among low-income, Latino emergency department patients
(2013) Community Mental Health Journal, 49 (4), pp. 412-418. 

a Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1196, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899, United States
b Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine at USC, 2250 Alcazar Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States
c School of Social Work, University of Southern California MRF 339, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0411, United States
d Special Service for Groups, Weber Community Center, 5849 Crocker St., Los Angeles, CA 90003, United States

Low-income and Latinos use the emergency department (ED) as a primary source of care. Also, the depression prevalence in ED patients is high, making the ED a compelling venue for depression screening and intervention. This study examined barriers and facilitators to depression treatment among low-income, predominantly Latino ED patients. We conducted telephone interviews with 24 ED patients (18-62 years of age, 79 % female) who dropped out of a depression treatment intervention. Using grounded theory, we analyzed perceptions of depression and treatment, and barriers and facilitators to mental health treatment. Although most patients acknowledged signs of depression, there was a lack of readiness to seek help. Patients reported negative perceptions about anti-depressant medication, even if they had no previous use. Barriers to treatment included transportation concerns, employment/unemployment, patient-provider issues, and immigrant documentation. Identified facilitators included consistent provider advice and "talking." This study introduced new misunderstanding and miscommunication barriers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Author Keywords
Depression;  Emergency department;  Latino;  Low-income;  Minority

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Hawasli, A.H., Buckley, R.T., Gao, F., Limbrick, D.D., Smyth, M.D., Leonard, J.R., Santiago, P., Stewart, T.J., Park, T.S., Grubb, R.L., Dowling, J.L., Leuthardt, E.C., Rich, K.M., Zipfel, G.J., Dacey, R.G., Chicoine, M.R.
Biopsy of the superficial cortex: Predictors of effectiveness and outcomes
(2013) Neurosurgery, 73 (2), pp. 224-231. 

Department of Neurosurgery and Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis MO 63110, United States

Background: Brain biopsies of superficial cortex are performed for diagnosis of neurological diseases, but preoperative predictors of successful diagnosis and risks are lacking. Objective: We evaluated effectiveness and outcomes of superficial cortical biopsies and determined preoperative predictors of diagnosis, outcomes, morbidities, and mortality. Methods: A single-institution retrospective analysis of 170 patients who underwent open brain biopsies of superficial cortex was performed. Clinical predictors of effectiveness and outcomes were determined using univariate/multivariate analyses and a system for risk-benefit stratification was created and tested. Results: Brain biopsies led to successful diagnosis in 122 of 170 (71.8%) and affected management in 97 of 170 (57.1%) cases. Factors increasing the odds of diagnostic pathology included age older than 45 years (odds ratio [OR]: 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-5.27, P,.01), previous cancer diagnosis (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.69-7.85, P,.001), focal (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 1.91-8.00, P,.001) and enhancing (OR: 5.03, 95% CI: 2.41-10.52, P,.001) lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy of specific lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (OR: 9.34, 95% CI: 4.29-20.33, P,.001), and use of intraoperative navigation (OR: 6.59, 95% CI: 3.04-14.28, P,.001). Brain biopsies led to symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, other significant morbidities, and perioperative mortality in 12.4%, 16.2%, 37.1%, and 8% of cases, respectively. Risk of postoperative intracranial hemorrhage was increased by a history of aspirin use (OR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.23-5.28, P,.05) and age older than 60 years (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.36-5.18, P,.01). Conclusion: Effectiveness and risk of morbidity/mortality can be estimated preoperatively for patients undergoing open brain biopsies of the superficial cortex. Older age and specific imaging characteristics increase the odds of diagnostic biopsy. Conversely, older age and aspirin use increases the risk of postoperative complications. Copyright © 2013 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

Author Keywords
Brain tumor;  Dementia;  Efficacy;  Hemorrhage;  Open brain biopsy;  Outcomes;  Pathology

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Yablonskiy, D.A.a , Sukstanskii, A.L.a , He, X.b 
Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-based techniques for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties - theoretical models and experimental approaches
(2013) NMR in Biomedicine, 26 (8), pp. 963-986. 

a Department of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

The quantitative evaluation of brain hemodynamics and metabolism, particularly the relationship between brain function and oxygen utilization, is important for the understanding of normal human brain operation, as well as the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. It can also be of great importance for the evaluation of hypoxia within tumors of the brain and other organs. A fundamental discovery by Ogawa and coworkers of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast opened up the possibility to use this effect to study brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties by means of MRI measurements. Such measurements require the development of theoretical models connecting the MRI signal to brain structure and function, and the design of experimental techniques allowing MR measurements to be made of the salient features of theoretical models. In this review, we discuss several such theoretical models and experimental methods for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties. The review's main focus is on methods for the evaluation of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) based on the measurement of the blood oxygenation level. A combination of the measurement of OEF and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows an evaluation to be made of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). We first consider in detail the magnetic properties of blood - magnetic susceptibility, MR relaxation and theoretical models of the intravascular contribution to the MR signal under different experimental conditions. We then describe a 'through-space' effect - the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the formation of the MR signal. Further, we describe several experimental techniques taking advantage of these theoretical models. Some of these techniques - MR susceptometry and T2-based quantification of OEF - utilize the intravascular MR signal. Another technique - quantitative BOLD - evaluates OEF by making use of through-space effects. In this review, we target both scientists just entering the MR field and more experienced MR researchers interested in the application of advanced BOLD-based techniques to the study of the brain in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd. In our review, we discuss several theoretical models and experimental methods for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties, based on the measurement of the blood oxygenation level. One of these techniques - the quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) technique - evaluates the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) by making use of the 'through-space' effect - the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the MR signal. Other techniques - MR susceptometry and T2-based quantification of OEF - utilize the intravascular MR signal. © 2012 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.

Author Keywords
Blood;  Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD);  Brain;  Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2);  MRI;  Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF);  Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD);  Susceptibility

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Saettele, A.K., Sharma, A., Murray, D.J.
Case scenario: Hypotonia in infancy: Anesthetic dilemma
(2013) Anesthesiology, 119 (2), pp. 443-446. 

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University, Campus Box 8054, 660 South Euclid, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States

Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus

Kronfeld-Schor, N.a , Dominoni, D.b c , de la Iglesia, H.d , Levy, O.e , Herzog, E.D.f , Dayan, T.a , Helfrich-Forster, C.g 
Chronobiology by moonlight
(2013) Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280 (1765), . Cited 1 time.

a Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
b Department of Migration and Immuno-Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
c Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
d Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
e Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
f Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, United States
g Department of Neurobiology and Genetics, University of Wurzburg, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany

Most studies in chronobiology focus on solar cycles (daily and annual). Moonlight and the lunar cycle received considerably less attention by chronobiologists. An exception are rhythms in intertidal species. Terrestrial ecologists long ago acknowledged the effects of moonlight on predation success, and consequently on predation risk, foraging behaviour and habitat use, while marine biologists have focused more on the behaviour and mainly on reproduction synchronization with relation to the Moon phase. Lately, several studies in different animal taxa addressed the role of moonlight in determining activity and studied the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the ecological and behavioural evidence showing the effect of moonlight on activity, discuss the adaptive value of these changes, and describe possible mechanisms underlying this effect. We will also refer to other sources of night-time light ('light pollution') and highlight open questions that demand further studies. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Communication;  Foraging;  Light pollution;  Lunar cycle;  Predation;  Reproduction

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

Lopate, G., Streif, E., Harms, M., Weihl, C., Pestronk, A.
Cramps and small-fiber neuropathy
(2013) Muscle and Nerve, 48 (2), pp. 252-255. 

Department of Neurology, Division of Neuromuscular Disease, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8111, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63110, United States

Introduction: Muscle cramps are a common complaint and are thought to arise from spontaneous discharges of the motor nerve terminal. Polyneuropathy is often causative, but small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) has not been assessed. Methods: We performed skin biopsies on consecutive patients with cramps but without neuropathic complaints. Twelve patients were biopsied, 8 with normal small-fiber sensation. Results: Seven patients had decreased intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), 2 with non-length-dependent loss. A cause for neuropathy was found in 1 patient with cramp-fasciculation syndrome. Creatine kinase was elevated in 8 patients, 4 with decreased IENFD. Muscle biopsy, performed in 8 patients, but was diagnostic in only 1, with McArdle disease. Conclusions: Our data show that 60% of patients with muscle cramps who lack neuropathic complaints have SFN, as documented by decreased IENFD. Cramps may originate as local mediators of inflammation released by damaged small nerve that excite intramuscular nerves.© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Author Keywords
Muscle cramps;  Peripheral nervous system disease;  Skin biopsy;  Small-fiber neuropathy;  Unmyelinated nerve fibers

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Anttila, V.a b c d , Winsvold, B.S.a e , Gormley, P.a , Kurth, T.f g h , Bettella, F.i , McMahon, G.j , Kallela, M.k , Malik, R.l , De Vries, B.m , Terwindt, G.n , Medland, S.E.o , Todt, U.p , McArdle, W.L.j , Quaye, L.q , Koiranen, M.r s , Ikram, M.t u v , Lehtimäki, T.w , Stam, A.H.n , Ligthart, L.x y , Wedenoja, J.z , Dunham, I.aa , Neale, B.M.c d , Palta, P.a b , Hamalainen, E.a b , Schürks, M.ab , Rose, L.M.h , Buring, J.E.h , Ridker, P.M.h ac , Steinberg, S.i , Stefansson, H.i , Jakobsson, , Lawlor, D.A.j , Evans, D.M.j , Ring, S.M.j , Färkkilä, M.k , Artto, V.k , Kaunisto, M.A.b ae , Freilinger, T.l af , Schoenen, , Frants, R.R.m , Pelzer, N.n , Weller, C.M.m , Zielman, R.n , Heath, A.C.ah , Madden, P.A.F.ah , Montgomery, G.W.o , Martin, N.G.o , Borck, G.p , Göbel, , Heinze, , Kuhn, , Williams, F.M.K.q , Hartikainen, A.-L.aj ak , Pouta, aj ak al , Van Den Ende, J.t , Uitterlinden, , Hofman, A.t , Amin, N.t , Hottenga, J.-J.x , Vink, J.M.x , Heikkilä, K.z , Alexander, ao , Myhsok, B.M.ap aq , Schreiber, as , Meitinger, au , Wichmann, H.E.av aw ax , Aromaa, A.ay , Eriksson, ay az ba bb , Traynor, B.J.bc , Trabzuni, be , Rossin, E.c d bf , Lage, K.c d bg bh bi , Jacobs, S.B.R.d , Gibbs, J.R.bc bd , Birney, E.aa , Kaprio, J.b z bj , Penninx, B.W.y bk bl bm , Boomsma, D.I.x , Van Duijn, C.t , Raitakari, bo , Jarvelin, M.-R.r s al bp bq , Zwart, J.-A.e , Cherkas, L.q , Strachan, , Kubisch, C.p , Ferrari, M.D.n , Van Den Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M.m n , Dichgans, M.l aq , Wessman, M.b ae , Smith, G.D.j , Stefansson, K.i bs , Daly, M.J.c d , Nyholt, D.R.o , Chasman, D.I.h , Palotie, A.a b d 
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine
(2013) Nature Genetics, 45 (8), pp. 912-917. 

a Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
b Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
c Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
d Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, United States
e Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
f Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unit 708-Neuroepidemiology, Bordeaux, France
g University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
h Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
i DeCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland
j University of Bristol/Medical Research Council (MRC) Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
k Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
l Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
m Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands
n Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands
o Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
p Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
q Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
r Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
s Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
t Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands
u Department of Radiology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands
v Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands
w Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland
x Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, Netherlands
y EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
z Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
aa European Bioinformatics Institute, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
ab Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany
ac Department of Epidemiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
ad Department of Neurology, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland
ae Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
af Department of Neurology, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany
ag Headache Research Unit, Department of Neurology and Groupe Interdisciplinaire de Genoproteomique Appliquee -Neurosciences, Liège University, Liège, Belgium
ah Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MS, United States
ai Kiel Pain and Headache Center, Kiel, Germany
aj Department of Clinical Sciences/Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
ak Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
al Department of Children, Young People and Families, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
am Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands
an Department of Genomics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
ao Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
ap Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
aq Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany
ar Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
as Department of Internal Medicine i, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
at Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
au Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
av Institut für Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany
aw Institute of Epidemiology i, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
ax Klinikum Großhadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany
ay National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
az Department of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
ba Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland
bb Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
bc Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States
bd Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
be Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
bf Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
bg Pediatric Surgical Research Laboratories, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
bh Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
bi Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
bj Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
bk Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands
bl Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
bm Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands
bn Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
bo Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
bp Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, MRC-Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, London, United Kingdom
bq Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
br Division of Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom
bs School of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and 95,425 population-matched controls. We identified 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility (P &lt; 5 × 10-8). Five loci are new: near AJAP1 at 1p36, near TSPAN2 at 1p13, within FHL5 at 6q16, within C7orf10 at 7p14 and near MMP16 at 8q21. Three of these loci were identified in disease subgroup analyses. Brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus analysis suggests potential functional candidate genes at four loci: APOA1BP, TBC1D7, FUT9, STAT6 and ATP5B. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Josefsson, K.a b , Jokela, M.a , Cloninger, C.R.c , Hintsanen, M.a , Salo, J.a , Hintsa, T.a , Pulkki-Råback, L.a b , Keltikangas-Järvinen, L.a 
Maturity and change in personality: Developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood
(2013) Development and Psychopathology, 25 (3), pp. 713-727. Cited 1 time.

a Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Psychology, University of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 1A, Helsinki 00014, Finland
b Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
c Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, United States

We studied the developmental trends of temperament and character in a longitudinal population-based sample of Finnish men and women aged 20-45 years using the Temperament and Character Inventory model of personality. Personality was assessed in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (n = 2,104, 2,095, and 2,056, respectively). Mean-level changes demonstrated qualitatively distinct developmental patterns for character (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) and temperament (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence). Character developed toward greater maturity, although self-transcendence decreased with age. However, self-transcendence was the strongest predictor of overall personality change. Cohort effects indicated lower level of self-transcendence and higher level of self-directedness and cooperativeness in younger birth cohorts. Regarding temperament, novelty seeking decreased and persistence increased slightly with age. Both high novelty seeking and high persistence predicted overall personality change. These findings suggest that temperament and character traits follow different kinds of developmental trajectories. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Jolly, C.J.a , Phillips-Conroy, J.E.b c , Kaplan, J.R.d , Mann, J.J.e f 
Monoamine Neurotransmitter Metabolites in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Group of Hybrid Baboons (Papio hamadryas × P. anubis)
(2013) International Journal of Primatology, 34 (4), pp. 836-858. 

a Department of Anthropology, New York University, NY, NY, 10003, United States
b Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, United States
c Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 63130, United States
d Department of Pathology (Comparative Medicine) and Wake Forest University Primate Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, United States
e Department of Molecular Imaging and Neuropathology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY, NY, United States
f Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, NY, NY, 10032, United States

Comparatively little is known about the pathways of proximate causation that link divergent genotypes, via neurophysiological differences, to distinct, species-specific social behaviors and systems. One approach to the problem compares gross activity levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin), evidenced by their metabolites -3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively- in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We have applied this method to Papio hamadryas and P. anubis, closely related baboon species with divergent social behavior, living in the Awash National Park (ANP), Ethiopia. We had previously shown that adult males of the two species differ in the ratio of HVA to 5-HIAA, and in concentrations of MHPG and HVA, but not 5-HIAA. Here, we compare monoamine metabolite levels of the parental species with those of 49 members of a naturally formed, multigenerational hamadryas × anubis hybrid group. We cage-trapped the baboons in July 1998, sampled their CSF by cisternal puncture, and assayed monoamine metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography. Previous findings suggested, anomalously, that hybrid males showed the high 5-HIAA levels predicted by the low-serotonin-early-dispersal hypothesis (originally based on observation of rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta), while hamadryas did not. The present study failed to find higher 5-HIAA levels in hybrids, resolving the anomaly, but leaving the previous result unexplained. Among adult females (underrepresented in our sample) and juveniles, metabolite levels of the hybrids did not differ significantly from either parental species. Overall, adult male hybrids resembled anubis in HVA and HVA/5-HIAA ratio, but did not show the low MHPG levels characteristic of that species. Consistent with a significant genetic influence on species differences in these metabolites, the adult hybrids showed intermediate means and greater intra-population diversity than the parental species for most variables, but showed no indication of hybrid dysgenesis in the form of low intermetabolite correlation. To the contrary, an enhanced HVA-MHPG correlation in the hybrids suggested a species-associated factor (not necessarily genetic) influencing both of these monoamine neurotransmitter systems. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Author Keywords
Baboons;  Behavior;  Cerebrospinal fluid;  Ethiopia;  Hybrids;  Monoamine neurotransmitters;  Papio hamadryas × Papio anubis

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Reynolds, L.C.a , Duncan, M.M.a , Smith, G.C.b , Mathur, A.b , Neil, J.b c d , Inder, T.b c d , Pineda, R.G.a b 
Parental presence and holding in the neonatal intensive care unit and associations with early neurobehavior
(2013) Journal of Perinatology, 33 (8), pp. 636-641. 

a Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States

Objective:To investigate the effects of parental presence and infant holding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on neurobehavior at term equivalent.Study Design:Prospective cohort enrolled 81 infants born ≤30 weeks gestation. Nurses tracked parent visitation, holding and skin-to-skin care throughout the NICU hospitalization. At term, the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale was administered. Associations between visitation, holding and early neurobehavior were determined using linear and logistic regression.Result:The mean hours per week of parent visitation was 21.33±20.88 (median=13.90; interquartile range 10.10 to 23.60). Infants were held an average of 2.29±1.47 days per week (median=2.00; interquartile range 1.20 to 3.10). Over the hospital stay, visitation hours decreased (P=0.01), while holding frequencies increased (P<0.001). More visitation was associated with better quality of movement (P=0.02), less arousal (P=0.01), less excitability (P=0.03), more lethargy (P=0.01) and more hypotonia (P<0.01). More holding was associated with improved quality of movement (P<0.01), less stress (P<0.01), less arousal (P=0.04) and less excitability (P<0.01).Conclusion: Infants of caregivers who were visited and held more often in the NICU had differences in early neurobehavior by term equivalent, which supports the need for and importance of early parenting in the NICU. © 2013 Nature America, Inc.

Author Keywords
holding;  NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale;  parenting;  premature infant;  skin-to-skin;  visitation

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Thompson-Brenner, H.a , Franko, D.L.b , Thompson, D.R.c , Grilo, C.M.d , Boisseau, C.L.a , Roehrig, J.P.b , Richards, L.K.a , Bryson, S.W.e , Bulik, C.M.f , Crow, S.J.g , Devlin, M.J.h , Gorin, A.A.i , Kristeller, J.L.j , Masheb, R.k , Mitchell, J.E.l , Peterson, C.B.m , Safer, D.L.n , Striegel, R.H.o , Wilfley, D.E.p , Wilson, G.T.q 
Race/ethnicity, education, and treatment parameters as moderators and predictors of outcome in binge eating disorder
(2013) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81 (4), pp. 710-721. 

a Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Boston University, 648 Beacon Street, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02143, United States
b Department of Counseling and Applied Educational Psychology, Northeastern University, Northeastern, MA, United States
c Thompson Research Consulting LLC, Milwaukee, WI, United States
d Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale, CT, United States
e Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, United States
f Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States
g Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN, United States
h Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia, NY, United States
i Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, CT, United States
j Psychology Department, Indiana State University, Indiana, IN, United States
k Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale, CT, United States
l Department of Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, ND, United States
m Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN, United States
n Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States
o Psychology Department, Wesleyan University, Wesleyan, CT, United States
p Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, United States
q Department of Psychology, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, NJ, United States

Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is prevalent among individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups and among individuals with lower levels of education, yet the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for these groups has not been examined in adequately powered analyses. This study investigated the relative variance in treatment retention and posttreatment symptom levels accounted for by demographic, clinical, and treatment variables as moderators and predictors of outcome. Method: Data were aggregated from 11 randomized, controlled trials of psychosocial treatments for BED conducted at treatment sites across the United States. Participants were N = 1,073 individuals meeting criteria for BED including n = 946 Caucasian, n = 79 African American, and n = 48 Hispanic/Latino participants. Approximately 86% had some higher education; 85% were female. Multilevel regression analyses examined moderators and predictors of treatment retention, Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score, frequency of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs), and OBE remission. Results: Moderator analyses of race/ethnicity and education were nonsignificant. Predictor analyses revealed African Americans were more likely to drop out of treatment than Caucasians, and lower level of education predicted greater posttreatment OBEs. African Americans showed a small but significantly greater reduction in EDE global score relative to Caucasians. Self-help treatment administered in a group showed negative outcomes relative to other treatment types, and longer treatment was associated with better outcome. Conclusions: Observed lower treatment retention among African Americans and lesser treatment effects for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment are serious issues requiring attention. Reduced benefit was observed for shorter treatment length and self-help administered in groups. © 2013 American Psychological Association.

Author Keywords
binge eating disorder;  ethnicity;  race;  socioeconomic status;  treatment outcome

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Liang, J., Zhou, Y., Winkler, A.W., Wang, L., Maslov, K.I., Li, C., Wang, L.V.
Random-access optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a digital micromirror device
(2013) Optics Letters, 38 (15), pp. 2683-2686. 

Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MI 63130, United States

We developed random-access optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a digital micromirror device. This system can rapidly scan arbitrarily shaped regions of interest within a 40 μm × 40 μm imaging area with a lateral resolution of 3.6 μm. To identify a region of interest, a global structural image is first acquired, then the selected region is scanned. The random-access ability was demonstrated by imaging two static samples, a carbon fiber cross and a monolayer of red blood cells, with an acquisition rate up to 4 kHz. The system was then used to monitor blood flow in vivo in real time within user-selected capillaries in a mouse ear. By imaging only the capillary of interest, the frame rate was increased by up to 9.2 times. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Amin, N.a , Hottenga, J.-J.b , Hansell, N.K.c , Janssens, A.C.J.W.d , De Moor, M.H.M.b , Madden, P.A.F.e , Zorkoltseva, I.V.f , Penninx, B.W.g h i , Terracciano, A.j , Uda, M.k , Tanaka, T.j , Esko, T.l , Realo, A.l , Ferrucci, L.j , Luciano, M.m , Davies, G.m , Metspalu, A.l , Abecasis, G.R.n , Deary, I.J.m , Raikkonen, K.o , Bierut, L.J.e , Costa, P.T.j , Saviouk, V.b , Zhu, G.c , Kirichenko, A.V.f , Isaacs, A.a , Aulchenko, Y.S.a , Willemsen, G.b , Heath, A.C.e , Pergadia, M.L.e , Medland, S.E.c , Axenovich, T.I.f , De Geus, E.b , Montgomery, G.W.c , Wright, M.J.c , Oostra, B.A.a p , Martin, N.G.c , Boomsma, D.I.b , Van Duijn, C.M.a q 
Refining genome-wide linkage intervals using a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies loci influencing personality dimensions
(2013) European Journal of Human Genetics, 21 (8), pp. 876-882. 

a Unit of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Drive. Molewaterplein 50, Rotterdam 3015 GE, Netherlands
b Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
c Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
d Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
e Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
f Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
g Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
h Departments of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands
i Department of Psychiatry, EMGO+ Institute, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
j National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD, United States
k Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia, CNR, Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
l Estonian Genome Project, University of Tartu and Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
m Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
n Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
o Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
p Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
q Centre of Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, Netherlands Consortium on Health Aging and National Genomics Initiative, The Hague, Netherlands


Personality traits are complex phenotypes related to psychosomatic health. Individually, various gene finding methods have not achieved much success in finding genetic variants associated with personality traits. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide linkage scans (N=6149 subjects) of five basic personality traits assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. We compared the significant regions from the meta-analysis of linkage scans with the results of a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (N∼17 000). We found significant evidence of linkage of neuroticism to chromosome 3p14 (rs1490265, LOD=4.67) and to chromosome 19q13 (rs628604, LOD=3.55); of extraversion to 14q32 (ATGG002, LOD=3.3); and of agreeableness to 3p25 (rs709160, LOD=3.67) and to two adjacent regions on chromosome 15, including 15q13 (rs970408, LOD=4.07) and 15q14 (rs1055356, LOD=3.52) in the individual scans. In the meta-analysis, we found strong evidence of linkage of extraversion to 4q34, 9q34, 10q24 and 11q22, openness to 2p25, 3q26, 9p21, 11q24, 15q26 and 19q13 and agreeableness to 4q34 and 19p13. Significant evidence of association in the GWAS was detected between openness and rs677035 at 11q24 (P-value=2.6 × 10 -06, KCNJ1). The findings of our linkage meta-analysis and those of the GWAS suggest that 11q24 is a susceptible locus for openness, with KCNJ1 as the possible candidate gene. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
GSMA;  KCNJ1;  Linkage;  NEO;  Personality

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Baumard, N.a b , Boyer, P.c 
Religious Beliefs as Reflective Elaborations on Intuitions: A Modified Dual-Process Model
(2013) Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (4), pp. 295-300. 

a University of Oxford, United Kingdom
b University of Pennsylvania, United States
c Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Dr., Campus Box 1125, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States

Religious beliefs apparently challenge our view of human cognition as an evolved system that provides reliable information about environments. We propose that properties of religious beliefs are best understood in terms of a dual-processing model, in which a variety of evolved domain-specific systems provide stable intuitions, whereas other systems produce explicit, often deliberate comments on those intuitions. This perspective accounts for the fact that religious beliefs are apparently diverse but thematically similar and that they are immune to refutation and more attractive to imaginative individuals. © The Author(s) 2013.

Author Keywords
cultural evolution;  dual process;  metarepresentation;  religion

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Li, H.a , Morrow-Howell, N.b , Proctor, E.b , Rubin, E.c 
Social support resources and post-acute recovery for older adults with major depression
(2013) Community Mental Health Journal, 49 (4), pp. 419-426. 

a School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1010 W Nevada Street, Urbana, IL 61801, United States
b George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
c Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

This study assessed the relationships between older patients' social support resources and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning at 6 months following a psychiatric hospital discharge. The data used in this study were extracted from a prospective study titled "Service Use of Depressed Elders after Acute Care" (National Institute of Mental Health-56208). This sample included 148 older patients who participated in the initial and the 6-month follow-up assessment. Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) was used to examine important social support resources in relation to older patients' depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. A vast majority of patients were embedded in a social support network that consisted of acquaintances and confidants. Patients' depressive symptoms were related to availability of a confidant and the extent to which they spent time with others. However, patients' psychosocial functioning was not related to social support resources assessed in this study. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Author Keywords
Major depression;  Older adults;  Social support resources

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Bloch, G.a , Herzog, E.D.b , Levine, J.D.c , Schwartz, W.J.d 
Socially synchronized circadian oscillators
(2013) Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280 (1765), . Cited 2 times.

a Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
b Department of Biology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130, United States
c Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON, L5L 136, Canada
d Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, United States

Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the 'group' level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Coupling;  Drosophila;  Entrainment;  Honeybee;  Social synchronization;  Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

Harrison, B.b c , Moore, A.M.b c , Calfee, R.b c , Sammer, D.M.a 
The association between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis
(2013) Journal of Hand Surgery, 38 (8), pp. 1571-1574. 

a Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, 1801 Inwood Road, Dallas, TX 75390, United States
b Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States
c Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Purpose: To determine whether an epidemiologic association exists between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis. Methods: Using a pathology database, we established a study cohort consisting of all patients who had undergone excision of a glomus tumor of the hand between 1995 and 2010. We created a control cohort by randomly selecting 200 patients who had undergone excision of a ganglion cyst over the same period. We reviewed medical records for each cohort to identify patients with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. We calculated the odds ratio was calculated and performed Fisher's exact test to determine the significance of the association. Results: We identified 21 patients with glomus tumors of the hand. Six of these patients carried the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis (29%). In contrast, no patients in the control group carried the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. The odds ratio for a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis in association with a glomus tumor compared with controls was 168:1. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of a strong epidemiologic association between glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis. Glomus tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis in neurofibromatosis patients who present with a painful lesion of the hand or finger. Type of study/level of evidence: Diagnostic III. © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand.

Author Keywords
Glomus tumor;  hand tumor;  neurofibroma;  neurofibromatosis;  von Recklinghausen

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Larsen, D.P.a , Butler, A.C.b , Lawson, A.L.c , Roediger III, H.L.d 
The importance of seeing the patient: Test-enhanced learning with standardized patients and written tests improves clinical application of knowledge
(2013) Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18 (3), pp. 409-425. Cited 3 times.

a Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, 63110, United States
b Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States
c Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Psychology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States

Previous research has shown that repeated retrieval with written tests produces superior long-term retention compared to repeated study. However, the degree to which this increased retention transfers to clinical application has not been investigated. In addition, increased retention obtained through written testing has not been compared to other forms of testing, such as simulation testing with a standardized patient (SP). In our study, 41 medical students learned three clinical topics through three different learning activities: testing with SPs, testing using written tests, and studying a review sheet. Students were randomized in a counter-balanced fashion to engage in one learning activity per topic. They participated in four weekly testing/studying sessions to learn the material, engaging in the same activity for a given topic in each session. Six months after initial learning, they returned to take an SP test on each topic, followed by a written test on each topic 1 week later. On both forms of final testing, we found that learning through SP testing and written testing generally produced superior long-term retention compared to studying a review sheet. SP testing led to significantly better performance on the final SP test relative to written testing, but there was no significant difference between the two testing conditions on the final written test. Overall, our study shows that repeated retrieval practice with both SPs and written testing enhances long-term retention and transfer of knowledge to a simulated clinical application. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Author Keywords
Long-term retention;  Simulation;  Standardized patients;  Test-enhanced learning;  Tests

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Knutsen, E.J., Calfee, R.P.
Uncommon Upper Extremity Compression Neuropathies
(2013) Hand Clinics, 29 (3), pp. 4430-453. 

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University, 660South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8233, StLouis, MO 63110, United States

Hand surgeons routinely treat carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes, which are the most common upper extremity nerve compression syndromes. However, more infrequent nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity may be encountered. Because they are unusual, the diagnosis of these nerve compression syndromes is often missed or delayed. This article reviews the causes, proposed treatments, and surgical outcomes for syndromes involving compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve at the wrist, and the median nerve proximal to the wrist. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Compression;  Median;  Nerve;  Radial;  Ulnar;  Uncommon

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

Dresser, R.
Pre-emptive suicide, precedent autonomy and preclinical Alzheimer disease
(2013) Journal of Medical Ethics, . Article in Press. 

Schools of Law and Medicine, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Box 1120, St Louis, MO 63130, USA

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Al-Hasani, R.a b , McCall, J.G.a c , Foshage, A.M.a d , Bruchas, M.R.a b c d 
Locus Coeruleus Kappa-Opioid Receptors Modulate Reinstatement of Cocaine Place Preference Through a Noradrenergic Mechanism
(2013) Neuropsychopharmacology, . Article in Press. 

a 1] Basic Research Division, Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
b Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
c Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
d Washington University Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA

Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain, suggesting a possible link between the NA and dynorphin/kappa opioid systems, yet the implications of these putative interactions have not been investigated. We isolated the necessity of KORs in the LC in kappa opioid agonist (U50,488)-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP by blocking KORs in the LC with NorBNI (KOR antagonist). KOR-induced reinstatement was significantly attenuated in mice injected with NorBNI in the LC. To determine the sufficiency of KORs in the LC on U50,488-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, we virally re-expressed KORs in the LC of KOR knockout mice. We found that KORs expression in the LC alone was sufficient to partially rescue KOR-induced reinstatement. Next we assessed the role of NA signaling in KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP in the presence and absence of a α2-agonist (clonidine), β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol), and β1- and β2-antagonist (betaxolol and ICI-118,551 HCl). Both the blockade of postsynaptic β1-adrenergic receptors and the activation of presynaptic inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors selectively potentiated the magnitude of KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP but not cocaine-primed CPP reinstatement. Finally, viral restoration of KORs in the LC together with β-adrenergic receptor blockade did not potentiate KOR-induced reinstatement to cocaine CPP, suggesting that adrenergic receptor interactions occur at KOR-expressing regions external to the LC. These results identify a previously unknown interaction between KORs and NA systems and suggest a NA regulation of KOR-dependent reinstatement of cocaine CPP.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 7 August 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.151.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Agrawal, A., Madden, P.A., Martin, N.G., Lynskey, M.T.
Do early experiences with cannabis vary in cigarette smokers?
(2013) Drug and alcohol dependence, 128 (3), pp. 255-259. 

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 660 S. Euclid, CB 8134, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.

We examine whether regular cigarette smokers were more likely to be exposed to and use cannabis at an earlier age, and further, upon initiation, whether their initial experiences with cannabis varied from those reported by never/non-regular cigarette smokers. A sample of 3797 Australian twins and siblings aged 21-46 years was used. Survival analyses examined whether cigarette smokers were at increased likelihood of early opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Logistic regression examined whether cigarette smokers reported greater enjoyment of their cannabis experience, inhaling on the first try, differing positive and negative initial subjective reactions, smoked cigarettes with cannabis the first time and were more likely to try cannabis again within a week. Regular cigarette smokers were more likely to report an earlier opportunity to use cannabis and early onset of cannabis use. Regular cigarette smokers were also considerably more likely to have enjoyed their first experience with cannabis and reported higher rates of positive initial reactions. They were more likely to report inhaling on the first try and smoking cigarettes with cannabis. Potentially negative subjective reactions were also elevated in regular cigarette smokers. Importantly, cigarette smokers were at 1.87 increased odds of smoking cannabis within a week of their initial use. These findings indicate that the well-known overlap in cannabis and cigarette smoking behaviors may evolve as early as opportunity to use and extend through the course of the substance use trajectory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Panagopoulos, V.N., Trull, T.J., Glowinski, A.L., Lynskey, M.T., Heath, A.C., Agrawal, A., Henders, A.K., Wallace, L., Todorov, A.A., Madden, P.A., Moore, E., Degenhardt, L., Martin, N.G., Montgomery, G.W., Nelson, E.C.
Examining the association of NRXN3 SNPs with borderline personality disorder phenotypes in heroin dependent cases and socio-economically disadvantaged controls.
(2013) Drug and alcohol dependence, 128 (3), pp. 187-193. 

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders frequently co-occur; their dual presence predicts poor prognosis. The genetic underpinnings of BPD have not been well-characterized and could offer insight into comorbidity. The current report focuses on the association of neurexin 3 (NRXN3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BPD symptoms in heroin dependent cases and controls. The sample of the Comorbidity and Trauma Study, a genetic association study of heroin dependence, consists of Australian heroin dependent cases ascertained from opioid replacement therapy clinics and controls ascertained in nearby economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. The assessment included a screening instrument for BPD, used previously in Australian population surveys. Genotypic and BPD phenotypic data were available for 1439 cases and 507 controls. We examined the association of 1430 candidate gene SNPs with BPD phenotypes. One or more NRXN3 SNPs were nominally associated with all BPD phenotypes; however, none met the conservative significance threshold we employed to correct for multiple testing. The most strongly associated SNPs included rs10144398 with identity disturbance (p=4.9×10(-5)) and rs10151731 with affective instability (p=8.8×10(-5)). The strongest association with screening positive for BPD was found for the NRXN3 SNP, rs10083466 (p=.0013). Neither the correlation of BPD phenotypes nor the linkage disequilibrium relationships of the SNPs account for the number of observed associations involving NRXN3 SNPs. Our findings provide intriguing preliminary evidence for the association of NRXN3 with BPD phenotypes. The strongest associations were found for traits (i.e., affective instability; identity disturbance) also observed with other disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Kelsey, M., Politte, D., Verner, R., Zempel, J.M., Nolan, T., Babajani-Feremi, A., Prior, F., Larson-Prior, L.J.
Determination of neural state classification metrics from the power spectrum of human ECoG.
(2012) Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, 2012, pp. 4336-4340. 

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Brain electrical activity exhibits scale-free dynamics that follow power law scaling. Previous works have shown that broadband spectral power exhibits state-dependent scaling with a log frequency exponent that systematically varies with neural state. However, the frequency ranges which best characterize biological state are not consistent across brain location or subject. An adaptive piecewise linear fitting solution was developed to extract features for classification of brain state. Performance was evaluated by comparison to an a posteriori based feature search method. This analysis, using the 1/f characteristics of the human ECoG signal, demonstrates utility in advancing the ability to perform automated brain state discrimination.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus