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Office of Neuroscience Research > Resources and Facilities > WUSTL Neuroscience Publications for the week > Weekly Neuroscience Publications - Archives > Neuroscience Publications Archive - August 2016

Neuroscience Publications Archive - August 2016

August 25, 2016

1) 

Eisenstein, S.A.a b , Bogdan, R.c , Love-Gregory, L.d , Corral-Frías, N.S.a , Koller, J.M.a , Black, K.J.a b e f , Moerlein, S.M.b g , Perlmutter, J.S.b e h , Barch, D.M.a b c , Hershey, T.a b c e
Prediction of striatal D2 receptor binding by DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA allele status
(2016) Synapse, 70 (10), pp. 418-431. 

DOI: 10.1002/syn.21916


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Neuroscience, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
g Department of Biochemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
h Programs in Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
In humans, the A1 (T) allele of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) TaqIA (rs1800497) single nucleotide polymorphism has been associated with reduced striatal DA D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability. However, radioligands used to estimate D2/D3R are displaceable by endogenous DA and are nonselective for D2R, leaving the relationship between TaqIA genotype and D2R specific binding uncertain. Using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol ([11C]NMB), which is highly selective for D2R over D3R and is not displaceable by endogenous DA, the current study examined whether DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA genotype predicts D2R specific binding in two independent samples. Sample 1 (n = 39) was composed of obese and nonobese adults; sample 2 (n = 18) was composed of healthy controls, unmedicated individuals with schizophrenia, and siblings of individuals with schizophrenia. Across both samples, A1 allele carriers (A1+) had 5 to 12% less striatal D2R specific binding relative to individuals homozygous for the A2 allele (A1−), regardless of body mass index or diagnostic group. This reduction is comparable to previous PET studies of D2/D3R availability (10–14%). The pooled effect size for the difference in total striatal D2R binding between A1+ and A1− was large (0.84). In summary, in line with studies using displaceable D2/D3R radioligands, our results indicate that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA allele status predicts striatal D2R specific binding as measured by D2R-selective [11C]NMB. These findings support the hypothesis that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA allele status may modify D2R, perhaps conferring risk for certain disease states. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
dopamine;  PET;  rs1800497


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




2) 

Scherrer, J.F.a b , Salas, J.a b , Sullivan, M.D.c , Schneider, F.D.a , Bucholz, K.K.d , Burroughs, T.e , Copeland, L.f g h , Ahmedani, B.i , Lustman, P.J.d j
The influence of prescription opioid use duration and dose on development of treatment resistant depression
(2016) Preventive Medicine, 91, pp. 110-116. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.08.003


a Department of Family and Community Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Harry S. Truman Veterans Administration Medical Center, Columbia, MO, United States
c Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States
d Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Saint Louis University Center for Outcomes Research, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Center for Applied Health Research, Baylor Scott & White Health, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, United States
g Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States
h UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, United States
i Henry Ford Health System, Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research, Department of Psychiatry, United States
j The Bell Street Clinic, VA St. Louis Health Care System – John Cochran Division, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Long-term prescription opioid use is associated both with new-onset and recurrence of depression. Whether chronic opioid use interferes with depression management has not been reported, therefore we determined whether patients' longer duration of opioid use and higher opioid dose are associated with new-onset treatment resistant depression (TRD) after controlling for confounding from pain and other variables. Data was obtained from Veteran Health Administration (VHA) de-identified patient medical records. We used a retrospective cohort design from 2000–2012. Eligible subjects (n = 6169) were 18–80 years of age, free of cancer and HIV, diagnosed with depression and opioid-free for the 24-month interval prior to the observation period. Duration of a new prescription for opioid analgesic was categorized as 1–30 days, 31–90 days and > 90 days. Morphine-equivalent dose (MED) during follow-up categorized as ≤ 50 mg versus > 50 mg per day. Pain and other sources of confounding were controlled by propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting. Cox proportional hazard models were computed to estimate the association between duration and dose of opioid and onset of TRD. After controlling for confounding by weighting data, opioid use for 31–90 days and for > 90 days, compared to 1–30 days, was significantly associated with new onset TRD (HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09
-1.45 and HR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.32-1.74, respectively). MED was not associated with new onset TRD. The risk of developing TRD increased as time spent on opioid analgesics increased. Long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain may interfere with treatment of depression. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Author Keywords
Depression;  Epidemiology;  Opioids;  Pain


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




3) 

Ooms, S.a b , Ju, Y.-E.c
Treatment of Sleep Disorders in Dementia
(2016) Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 18 (9), art. no. 40, . 

DOI: 10.1007/s11940-016-0424-3


a Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
b Radboud Alzheimer Centre, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands
c Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8111, Saint Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Sleep and circadian disorders occur frequently in all types of dementia. Due to the multifactorial nature of sleep problems in dementia, we propose a structured approach to the evaluation and treatment of these patients. Primary sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea should be treated first. Comorbid conditions and medications that impact sleep should be optimally managed to minimize negative effects on sleep. Patients and caregivers should maintain good sleep hygiene, and social and physical activity should be encouraged during the daytime. Given the generally benign nature of bright light therapy and melatonin, these treatments should be tried first. Pharmacological treatments should be added cautiously, due to the risk of cognitive side effects, sedation, and falls in the demented and older population. Regardless of treatment modality, it is essential to follow patients with dementia and sleep disorders closely, with serial monitoring of individual response to treatment. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Author Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease;  Circadian;  Dementia;  Dementia with Lewy bodies;  Frontotemporal dementia;  Insomnia;  Lewy body disease;  Parkinson’s disease with dementia;  REM sleep behavior disorder;  Sleep;  Vascular dementia


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




4) 

Jong, Y.-J.I., O’Malley, K.L.
Mechanisms Associated with Activation of Intracellular Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor, mGluR5
(2016) Neurochemical Research, pp. 1-7. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s11064-016-2026-6


Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Saint Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
The group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, is found on the cell surface as well as on intracellular membranes where it can mediate both overlapping and unique signaling effects. Previously we have shown that glutamate activates intracellular mGluR5 by entry through sodium-dependent transporters and/or cystine glutamate exchangers. Calibrated antibody labelling suggests that the glutamate concentration within neurons is quite high (~10 mM) raising the question as to whether intracellular mGluR5 is maximally activated at all times or whether a different ligand might be responsible for receptor activation. To address this issue, we used cellular, optical and molecular techniques to show that intracellular glutamate is largely sequestered in mitochondria; that the glutamate concentration necessary to activate intracellular mGluR5 is about ten-fold higher than what is necessary to activate cell surface mGluR5; and uncaging caged glutamate within neurons can directly activate the receptor. Thus these studies further the concept that glutamate itself serves as the ligand for intracellular mGluR5. © 2016 The Author(s)


Author Keywords
Calcium;  Glutamate;  GPCR;  Metabotropic


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




5) 

Dacey, M.
Rethinking associations in psychology
(2016) Synthese, pp. 1-24. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s11229-016-1167-0


Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1073, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
I challenge the dominant understanding of what it means to say two thoughts are associated. The two views that dominate the current literature treat association as a kind of mechanism that drives sequences of thought (often implicitly treating them so). The first, which I call reductive associationism, treats association as a kind of neural mechanism. The second treats association as a feature of the kind of psychological mechanism associative processing. Both of these views are inadequate. I argue that association should instead be seen as a highly abstract filler term, standing in for causal relations between representational states in a system. Associations, so viewed, could be implemented by many different mechanisms. I outline the role that this view gives associative models as part of a top-down characterization of psychological processes of any kind and of any complexity. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Author Keywords
Associationism;  Comparative psychology;  Connectionism;  Mechanism;  Modelling;  Reductionism


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




6) 

Rose, T.a , Finigan-Carr, N.a , Joe, S.b
Organized Religious Involvement and Mental Health Among Caribbean Black Adolescents
(2016) Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, pp. 1-11. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s10560-016-0452-6


a School of Social Work, University of Maryland, 525 W. Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD, United States
b George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1196, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Though religion has been related to better mental health, the aspects of organized religious life most salient for the mental health of Caribbean Black adolescents in the US, beyond religious service attendance, has been understudied. This research utilized a sub-sample of Caribbean Black adolescents from the NSAL-A, a nationally representative U.S. dataset, to examine (1) the prevalence of organized religious involvement (e.g., participation in religious service activities, choice to attend religious services) and (2) the relationship between organized religious involvement and mental health. Results showed that 62 % of Caribbean Black adolescents attend religious services regularly (at least a few times a month) and 49 % or more attend religious services or participate in religious activities (e.g., youth groups) by choice. Additionally, various aspects of organized religious involvement were positively related to coping and self-esteem, and negatively related to depressive symptoms. Religious service attendance was not related to any of the mental health indicators. Study results can inform the development of individual and group level interventions targeted at supporting the mental health of Caribbean Black adolescents. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Author Keywords
Adolescents;  Caribbean Black;  Mental health;  Religion


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




7) 

Smyser, T.A.a , Smyser, C.D.b c d , Rogers, C.E.a c , Gillespie, S.K.d e , Inder, T.E.f , Neil, J.J.g
Cortical Gray and Adjacent White Matter Demonstrate Synchronous Maturation in Very Preterm Infants
(2016) Cerebral Cortex, 26 (8), pp. 3370-3378. 

DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhv164


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, St Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
e University College, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
g Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States


Abstract
Spatial and functional gradients of development have been described for the maturation of cerebral gray and white matter using histological and radiological approaches. We evaluated these patterns in very preterm (VPT) infants using diffusion tensor imaging. Data were obtained from 3 groups: 1) 22 VPT infants without white matter injury (WMI), of whom all had serial MRI studies during the neonatal period, 2) 19 VPT infants with WMI, of whom 3 had serial MRI studies and 3) 12 healthy, term-born infants. Regions of interest were placed in the cortical gray and adjacent white matter in primary motor, primary visual, visual association, and prefrontal regions. From the MRI data at term-equivalent postmenstrual age, differences in mean diffusivity were found in all areas between VPT infants with WMI and the other 2 groups. In contrast, minimal differences in fractional anisotropy were found between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that cortical maturation is delayed in VPT infants with WMI when compared with term control infants and VPT infants without WMI. From the serial MRI data from VPT infants, synchronous development between gray and white matter was evident in all areas and all groups, with maturation in primary motor and sensory regions preceding that of association areas. This finding highlights the regionally varying but locally synchronous nature of the development of cortical gray matter and its adjacent white matter. © 2015 Published by Oxford University Press.


Author Keywords
developmental neuroimaging;  diffusion tensor imaging;  infant;  prematurity;  white matter


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




8) 

Nelson, S.M.a b , Savalia, N.K.b , Fishell, A.K.c , Gilmore, A.W.e , Zou, F.e , Balota, D.A.c e e , McDermott, K.B.d e e
Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31
(2016) Cerebral Cortex, 26 (8), pp. 3379-3389. 

DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhv165


a VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans, 4800 Memorial Dr. (151C), Waco, TX, United States
b Center for Vital Longevity, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX, United States
c Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Radiology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. © 2015 Published by Oxford University Press.


Author Keywords
aging;  deactivations;  default mode network;  learning;  memory


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




9) 

Mamah, D.a , Musau, A.c , Mutiso, V.N.c , Owoso, A.a , Abdallah, A.B.b , Cottler, L.B.d , Striley, C.W.d , Walker, E.F.e , Ndetei, D.M.c f
Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents
(2016) Schizophrenia Research, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.08.004


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Africa Mental Health Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya
d Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
e Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, United States
f Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Kenya


Abstract
The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression.135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses.More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p = 0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity.Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya. © 2016 The Authors.


Author Keywords
Africa;  Kenya;  Prodrome;  Psychosis;  Risk;  Schizophrenia


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




10) 

Vu, A.T.a h , Phillips, J.S.b , Kay, K.c i , Phillips, M.E.d , Johnson, M.R.e , Shinkareva, S.V.f , Tubridy, S.g , Millin, R.d , Grossman, M.b , Gureckis, T.g , Bhattacharyya, R.d , Yacoub, E.a
Using precise word timing information improves decoding accuracy in a multiband-accelerated multimodal reading experiment
(2016) Cognitive Neuropsychology, 33 (3-4), pp. 265-275. Cited 1 time.

DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2016.1195343


a Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States
b Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
c Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
d HRL Laboratories LLC, Malibu, CA, United States
e Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States
f Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States
g Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, United States
h Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VAMC San FranciscoCA, United States
i Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States


Abstract
The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is generally regarded as sluggish and poorly suited for probing neural function at the rapid timescales involved in sentence comprehension. However, recent studies have shown the value of acquiring data with very short repetition times (TRs), not merely in terms of improvements in contrast to noise ratio (CNR) through averaging, but also in terms of additional fine-grained temporal information. Using multiband-accelerated fMRI, we achieved whole-brain scans at 3-mm resolution with a TR of just 500 ms at both 3T and 7T field strengths. By taking advantage of word timing information, we found that word decoding accuracy across two separate sets of scan sessions improved significantly, with better overall performance at 7T than at 3T. The effect of TR was also investigated; we found that substantial word timing information can be extracted using fast TRs, with diminishing benefits beyond TRs of 1000 ms. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Author Keywords
7T;  decoding;  functional magnetic resonance imaging;  multiband;  timing;  words


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




11) 

Constantino, J.N.a , Charman, T.b
Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: reconciling the syndrome, its diverse origins, and variation in expression
(2016) The Lancet. Neurology, 15 (3), pp. 279-291. 

DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00151-9


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: constantino@wustl.edu
b Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK


Abstract
Recent discoveries about the pathogenesis and symptom structure of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are challenging traditional nosology and driving efforts to reconceptualise the diagnosis of autism, a goal made all the more pressing by new prospects for early identification, targeted intervention, and personalised-medicine approaches to specific autistic syndromes. Recognition that ASD represents the severe end of a continuous distribution of social communication abilities in the general population has stimulated attempts to standardise the measurement of autistic traits and to set appropriate clinical thresholds for diagnosis. Over the next decade, rapid advances in our understanding of symptom structure and the diversity of causes of ASD could be incorporated into the next evolution in the diagnosis of autism, with important implications for research, clinical practice, public health, and policy. As differential effects of personalised therapies are identified in relation to specific causes of autism, the benefits of an updated diagnostic nosology will translate into the delivery of more effective care for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




12) 

Kolb, S.J.a b aa , Coffey, C.S.c , Yankey, J.W.c , Krosschell, K.d , Arnold, W.D.a e , Rutkove, S.B.f , Swoboda, K.J.g h , Reyna, S.P.g h , Sakonju, A.g , Darras, B.T.i , Shell, R.j , Kuntz, N.k , Castro, D.l , Iannaccone, S.T.l , Parsons, J.m , Connolly, A.M.n , Chiriboga, C.A.o , Mcdonald, C.p , Burnette, W.B.q , Werner, K.r , Thangarajh, M.s , Shieh, P.B.t , Finanger, E.u , Cudkowicz, M.E.h , Mcgovern, M.M.h , Mcneil, D.E.v , Finkel, R.w , Kaye, E.x , Kingsley, A.a , Renusch, S.R.b , Mcgovern, V.L.b , Wang, X.b , Zaworski, P.G.y , Prior, T.W.z , Burghes, A.H.M.b , Bartlett, A.a , Kissel, J.T.a
Baseline results of the NeuroNEXT spinal muscular atrophy infant biomarker study
(2016) Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, 3 (2), pp. 132-145. 

DOI: 10.1002/acn3.283


a Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, United States
b Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, United States
c Department of Biostatistics, NeuroNEXT Data Coordinating Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States
d Departments of Physical Therapy, Human Movement Sciences and Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States
e Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, United States
f Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States
g Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
h Department of Neurology, NeuroNEXT Clinical Coordinating Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
i Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
j Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
k Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
l UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
m Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States
n Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
o Department of Neurology, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United States
p University of California - Davis, Davis, CA, United States
q Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States
r SUNY Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY, United States
s Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
t University of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States
u Dorenbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, OR, United States
v National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, United States
w Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL, United States
x Sarepta Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, United States
y PharmOptima, Portage, MI, United States
z Department of Molecular Pathology, Ohio State Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, United States


Abstract
Objective: This study prospectively assessed putative promising biomarkers for use in assessing infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods: This prospective, multi-center natural history study targeted the enrollment of SMA infants and healthy control infants less than 6 months of age. Recruitment occurred at 14 centers within the NINDS National Network for Excellence in Neuroscience Clinical Trials (NeuroNEXT) Network. Infant motor function scales and putative electrophysiological, protein and molecular biomarkers were assessed at baseline and subsequent visits. Results: Enrollment began November, 2012 and ended September, 2014 with 26 SMA infants and 27 healthy infants enrolled. Baseline demographic characteristics of the SMA and control infant cohorts aligned well. Motor function as assessed by the Test for Infant Motor Performance Items (TIMPSI) and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Infant Test of Neuromuscular Disorders (CHOP-INTEND) revealed significant differences between the SMA and control infants at baseline. Ulnar compound muscle action potential amplitude (CMAP) in SMA infants (1.4 ± 2.2 mV) was significantly reduced compared to controls (5.5 ± 2.0 mV). Electrical impedance myography (EIM) high-frequency reactance slope (Ohms/MHz) was significantly higher in SMA infants than controls SMA infants had lower survival motor neuron (SMN) mRNA levels in blood than controls, and several serum protein analytes were altered between cohorts. Interpretation: By the time infants were recruited and presented for the baseline visit, SMA infants had reduced motor function compared to controls. Ulnar CMAP, EIM, blood SMN mRNA levels, and serum protein analytes were able to distinguish between cohorts at the enrollment visit. © 2016 American Neurological Association.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




 

13) 

Hou, J.a b , Baker, L.A.c , Zhou, L.c , Klein, R.S.a d e
Viral interactions with the blood-brain barrier: old dog, new tricks
(2016) Tissue Barriers, 4 (1), 9 p. 

DOI: 10.1080/21688370.2016.1142492


a Internal Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Center for Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States
d Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Brain endothelial cells form a unique cellular structure known as the tight junction to regulate the exchanges between the blood and the parenchyma by limiting the paracellular diffusion of blood-borne substance. Together with the restricted pathway of transcytosis, the tight junction in the brain endothelial cells provides the central nervous system (CNS) with effective protection against both the foreign pathogens and the host immune cells, which is also termed the “blood-brain barrier.” The blood-brain barrier is particularly important for defending against neurotropic viral infections that have become a major source of diseases worldwide. Many neurotropic viruses are able to cross the BBB and infect the CNS through very poorly understood processes. This review focuses upon the structural and functional changes of the brain endothelial tight junction in response to viral infections in the CNS and how the tight junction changes may be studied with advanced imaging and recording approaches to reveal novel processes used by the viruses to cross the barrier system. Additional emphasis is placed upon new countermeasures that can act directly upon the tight junction to improve the pathogen clearance and minimize the inflammatory damage. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Author Keywords
blood brain barrier;  central nervous system;  claudin;  tight junction;  virus


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus

 

August 17, 2016

1) 

Gerassi, L., Jonson-Reid, M., Drake, B.
Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Sample of At-Risk Youth: Roles of Mental Health and Trauma Histories
(2016) Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 9 (3), pp. 209-216. 

DOI: 10.1007/s40653-015-0074-8


Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Little is known about whether there are specific subpopulations of youth with known problem behaviors that are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. This study’s sample (n = 4117) was drawn from a larger longitudinal administrative data, consisting of young adults with child abuse and/or poverty histories and records of some form of high-risk behavior or mental health diagnosis during adolescence. A cluster-controlled, logistic regression resulted in 11 statistically significant relationships. Youth treated for a mental health disorder and experienced multiple forms of abuse were more likely to be treated for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Youth who were delinquent, treated for substance abuse and had substance use related offenses were less likely to be treated for STIs. Youth treated for STIs were more likely to be identified through mental health systems or child protective services system than through known delinquent behaviors. Health care providers treating youth for STIs should explore the possible role of mental health and trauma histories. © 2015, Springer International Publishing.


Author Keywords
Adolescents;  Child abuse;  Child protective services;  Mental health;  Mental health systems;  Sexually transmitted infections;  Trauma;  Youth


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




2) 

Sy, J.R.a , Green, L.b , Gratz, O.c , Ervin, T.c
An Evaluation of the Effects of a Mild Delayed Verbal Punisher on Choice of an Immediate Reinforcer by Children With Autism
(2016) Behavior Modification, 40 (5), pp. 713-730. 

DOI: 10.1177/0145445515622382


a University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD, United States
b Washington University in St. LouisMO, United States
c Saint Louis UniversityMO, United States


Abstract
Different combinations of immediate and delayed consequences differentially affect choice. Basic research has found that nonhuman animals are more likely to choose an alternative that produces an immediate reinforcer that is followed by a delayed punisher as the delay to punishment increases. The purpose of the current effort was to examine the choices of three individuals with autism when they were given the choice between receiving a larger amount of preferred food followed by a mild, delayed verbal punisher and a smaller amount of the preferred food. A secondary purpose was to determine whether signal presence and duration would affect the efficacy of the punisher (i.e., whether children would be more likely to select the smaller reward that was not followed by a delayed punisher). Results were idiosyncratic across children and highlight the need to evaluate choice under multiple arrangements. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Author Keywords
choice;  delayed punishment;  rule-following


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




3) 

Ohna, T.-L.a b c d , Rutherford, M.A.a e , Jing, Z.b d f , Jung, S.a g h , Duque-Afonso, C.J.a b , Hoch, G.a , Picher, M.M.a b , Scharinger, A.i j , Strenzke, N.b d f , Moser, T.a b c d g h k
Hair cells use active zones with different voltage dependence of Ca2+ influx to decompose sounds into complementary neural codes
(2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113 (32), pp. E4716-E4725. 

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1605737113


a Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
b Göttingen Graduate School for Neurosciences and Molecular Biosciences, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
c Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
d Collaborative Research Center 889, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
e Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Auditory Systems Physiology Group, InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
g Synaptic Nanophysiology Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen, Germany
h Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany
i Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
j Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
k Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, University of Göttingen, Goettingen, Germany


Abstract
For sounds of a given frequency, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) with different thresholds and dynamic ranges collectively encode the wide range of audible sound pressures. Heterogeneity of synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and SGNs is an attractive candidate mechanism for generating complementary neural codes covering the entire dynamic range. Here, we quantified active zone (AZ) properties as a function of AZ position within mouse IHCs by combining patch clamp and imaging of presynaptic Ca2+ influx and by immunohistochemistry. We report substantial AZ heterogeneity whereby the voltage of half-maximal activation of Ca2+ influx ranged over 20 mV. Ca2+ influx at AZs facing away from the ganglion activated at weaker depolarizations. Estimates of AZ size and Ca2+ channel number were correlated and larger when AZs faced the ganglion. Disruption of the deafness gene GIPC3 in mice shifted the activation of presynaptic Ca2+ influx to more hyperpolarized potentials and increased the spontaneous SGN discharge. Moreover, Gipc3 disruption enhanced Ca2+ influx and exocytosis in IHCs, reversed the spatial gradient of maximal Ca2+ influx in IHCs, and increased the maximal firing rate of SGNs at sound onset. We propose that IHCs diversify Ca2+ channel properties among AZs and thereby contribute to decomposing auditory information into complementary representations in SGNs.


Author Keywords
Auditory system|spiral ganglion neuron;  Dynamic range;  Presynaptic heterogeneity;  Synaptic strength


Document Type: Conference Paper
Source: Scopus




4) 

Caldwell, B.a , Ustione, A.b , Piston, D.W.a b
Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 β-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy
(2016) Biophysical Journal, 111 (3), pp. 609-618. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2016.06.026


a Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States
b Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States


Abstract
Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells. To understand this dichotomy, we investigated the dynamic interactions between the dopamine receptor subtypes and their G-proteins using two-color fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) of mouse MIN6 β-cells. We show that proper membrane localization of exogenous G-proteins depends on both the Gβ and Gγ subunits being overexpressed in the cell. Triple transfections of the dopamine receptor subtype and Gβ and Gγ subunits, each labeled with a different-colored fluorescent protein (FP), yielded plasma membrane expression of all three FPs and permitted an FFS evaluation of interactions between the dopamine receptors and the Gβγ complex. Upon dopamine stimulation, we measured a significant decrease in interactions between DRD3 and the Gβγ complex, which is consistent with receptor activation. In contrast, dopamine stimulation did not cause significant changes in the interactions between DRD2 and the Gβγ complex. These results demonstrate that two-color FFS is a powerful tool for measuring dynamic protein interactions in living cells, and show that preferential DRD3 signaling in β-cells occurs at the level of G-protein release. © 2016 Biophysical Society


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




5) 

Lucey, B.P.
Biomarker changes in early Alzheimer's disease
(2016) Science Translational Medicine, 8 (350), p. 350ec123. 

DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4510


Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Document Type: Short Survey
Source: Scopus




6) 

Salehi, A.a , Ott, K.a , Skolnick, G.B.b , Nguyen, D.C.b , Naidoo, S.D.b , Kane, A.A.c , Woo, A.S.b , Patel, K.B.b , Smyth, M.D.a
Neosuture formation after endoscope-assisted craniosynostosis repair
(2016) Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, 18 (2), pp. 196-200. 

DOI: 10.3171/2016.2.PEDS15231


a Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8057, 660 S Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States


Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify the rate of neosuture formation in patients with craniosynostosis treated with endoscope-assisted strip craniectomy and investigate whether neosuture formation in sagittal craniosynostosis has an effect on postoperative calvarial shape. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 166 cases of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis that underwent endoscope-assisted repair between 2006 and 2014. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative head CT scans were evaluated, and the rate of neosuture formation was calculated. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the CT data were used to measure cephalic index (CI) (ratio of head width and length) of patients with sagittal synostosis. Regression analysis was used to calculate significant differences between patients with and without neosuture accounting for age at surgery and preoperative CI. RESULTS: Review of 96 patients revealed that some degree of neosuture development occurred in 23 patients (23.9%): 16 sagittal, 2 bilateral coronal, 4 unilateral coronal, and 1 lambdoid synostosis. Complete neosuture formation was seen in 14 of those 23 patients (9 of 16 sagittal, 1 of 2 bilateral coronal, 3 of 4 unilateral coronal, and 1 of 1 lambdoid). Mean pre- and postoperative CI in the complete sagittal neosuture group was 67.4% and 75.5%, respectively, and in the non-neosuture group was 69.8% and 74.4%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the CI between the neosuture and fused suture groups preoperatively or 17 months postoperatively in patients with sagittal synostosis. CONCLUSIONS: Neosuture development can occur after endoscope-assisted strip craniectomy and molding helmet therapy for patients with craniosynostosis. Although the authors did not detect a significant difference in calvarial shape postoperatively in the group with sagittal synostosis, the relevance of neosuture formation remains to be determined. Further studies are required to discover long-term outcomes comparing patients with and without neosuture formation. ©AANS, 2016.


Author Keywords
Craniofacial;  Endoscopy;  Neosuture;  Sagittal craniosynostosis;  Scaphocephaly;  Strip craniectomy;  Suture re-formation


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




7) 

Madaelil, T.P.a , Wallace, A.N.a , Chatterjee, A.N.a , Zipfel, G.J.b c , Dacey, R.G., Jr.c , Iii, D.T.C.a b , Moran, C.J.a b , Derdeyn, C.P.a b c
Endovascular parent vessel sacrifice in ruptured dissecting vertebral and posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Clinical outcomes and review of the literature
(2016) Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, 8 (8), pp. 796-801. 

DOI: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011732


a Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 South Kingshighway, Boulevard, St Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Background Ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms must be secured quickly to prevent rehemorrhage. Endovascular sacrifice of the diseased segment is a well-established treatment method, however postoperative outcomes of symptomatic stroke and re-hemorrhage rates are not well reported, particularly for the perforator-rich distal vertebral artery or proximal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Methods We retrospectively reviewed cases of ruptured distal vertebral artery or PICA dissecting aneurysms that underwent endovascular treatment. Diagnosis was based on the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage on initial CT imaging and of a dissecting aneurysm on catheter angiography. Patients with vertebral artery aneurysms were selected for coil embolization of the diseased arterial segment based on the adequacy of flow to the basilar artery from the contralateral vertebral artery. Patients with PICA aneurysms were generally treated only if they were poor surgical candidates. Outcomes included symptomatic and asymptomatic procedurerelated cerebral infarction, recurrent aneurysm rupture, angiographic aneurysm recurrence, and estimated modified Rankin Scale (MRS). Results During the study period, 12 patients with dissecting aneurysms involving the distal vertebral artery (n=10) or PICA (n=2) were treated with endovascular sacrifice. Two patients suffered an ischemic infarction, one of whom was symptomatic (8.3%). One patient (8.3%) died prior to hospital discharge. No aneurysm recurrence was identified on follow-up imaging. Ten patients (83%) made a good recovery (MRS ≤2). Median clinical and imaging follow-up periods were 41.7 months (range 0-126.4 months) and 14.3 months (range 0.03-88.6 months), respectively. Conclusions In patients with good collateral circulation, endovascular sacrifice may be the preferred treatment for acutely ruptured dissecting aneurysms involving the distal vertebral artery.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




8) 

Saffran, K.a , Fitzsimmons-Craft, E.E.b , Kass, A.E.c , Wilfley, D.E.b , Taylor, C.B.a d , Trockel, M.a
Facebook usage among those who have received treatment for an eating disorder in a group setting
(2016) International Journal of Eating Disorders, 49 (8), pp. 764-777. 

DOI: 10.1002/eat.22567


a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Canada
b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Medicine, The University of ChicagoChicago, Israel
d Center for mHealth, Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, United States


Abstract
Objective: This study explored Facebook use among individuals with a history of receiving treatment for an eating disorder (ED) in a group setting (e.g., inpatient, residential, outpatient group), focusing primarily on comparisons individuals make about their bodies, eating, or exercise to those of their peers from treatment on Facebook and the relation between these comparisons and ED pathology. Method: Individuals (N = 415; mean age 28.15 years ± 8.41; 98.1% female) who self-reported receipt of ED treatment in a group setting were recruited via e-mail and social media to complete an online survey. Results: Participants reported having an average of 10–19 Facebook friends from treatment and spending up to 30 min per day interacting on Facebook with individuals from treatment or ED-related organizations. More comparison to treatment peers on Facebook was associated with greater ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Conversely, positive interaction with treatment peers on Facebook was associated with lower ED psychopathology and ED-related impairment. Individuals who had been in treatment longer, more times, and more recently had more Facebook friends from treatment and ED-related organizations as well as spent more time in ED groups' pages on Facebook. Few participants (19.5%) reported that a therapist asked about the impact of Facebook on pathology. Discussion: Interactions on Facebook could affect patients' recovery and potential for relapse. It may be helpful for treatment providers to discuss Facebook use and its potential benefits and drawbacks with patients preparing for discharge from group treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:764–777). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
eating disorders;  Facebook;  group treatment;  social media


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




9) 

Gordon, B.A.a b , Friedrichsen, K.a , Brier, M.c , Blazey, T.d , Su, Y.a , Christensen, J.a , Aldea, P.a , McConathy, J.a , Holtzman, D.M.b c d e , Cairns, N.J.b c e , Morris, J.C.b c , Fagan, A.M.b c e , Ances, B.M.b c e , Benzinger, T.L.S.a b f
The relationship between cerebrospinal fluid markers of Alzheimer pathology and positron emission tomography tau imaging
(2016) Brain, 139 (8), pp. 2249-2260. 

DOI: 10.1093/brain/aww139


a Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University in St. Louis, 4488 Forest Park Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
The two primary molecular pathologies in Alzheimer's disease are amyloid-β plaques and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles. Investigations into these pathologies have been restricted to cerebrospinal fluid assays, and positron emission tomography tracers that can image amyloid-β plaques. Tau tracers have recently been introduced into the field, although the utility of the tracer and its relationship to other Alzheimer biomarkers are still unknown. Here we examined tau deposition in 41 cognitively normal and 11 cognitively impaired older adults using the radioactive tau ligand 18F-AV-1451 (previously known as T807) who also underwent a lumbar puncture to assess cerebrospinal fluid levels of total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) and amyloid-β42. Voxel-wise statistical analyses examined spatial patterns of tau deposition associated with cognitive impairment. We then related the amount of tau tracer uptake to levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. All analyses controlled for age and gender and, when appropriate, the time between imaging and lumbar puncture assessments. Symptomatic individuals (Clinical Dementia Rating > 0) demonstrated markedly increased levels of tau tracer uptake. This elevation was most prominent in the temporal lobe and temporoparietal junction, but extended more broadly into parietal and frontal cortices. In the entire cohort, there were significant relationships among all cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and tracer uptake, notably for tau-related cerebrospinal fluid markers. After controlling for levels of amyloid-β42, the correlations with tau uptake were r = 0.490 (P < 0.001) for t-tau and r = 0.492 (P < 0.001) for p-tau181. Within the cognitively normal cohort, levels of amyloid-β42, but not t-tau or p-tau181, were associated with elevated tracer binding that was confined primarily to the medial temporal lobe and adjacent neocortical regions. AV-1451 tau binding in the medial temporal, parietal, and frontal cortices is correlated with tau-related cerebrospinal fluid measures. In preclinical Alzheimer's disease, there is focal tauopathy in the medial temporal lobes and adjacent cortices. © 2016 The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.


Author Keywords
Alzheimer's disease;  cerebrospinal fluid;  positron emission tomography;  preclinical;  tau imaging


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




10) 

Horvát, S.a , Gamanu?, R.a , Ercsey-Ravasz, M.b c , Magrou, L.a , Gamanu?, B.a , Van Essen, D.C.d , Burkhalter, A.d , Knoblauch, K.a , Toroczkai, Z.e f , Kennedy, H.a
Spatial Embedding and Wiring Cost Constrain the Functional Layout of the Cortical Network of Rodents and Primates
(2016) PLoS Biology, 14 (7), art. no. e1002512, . 

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002512


a Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, Stem-cell and Brain Research Institute U1208, Bron, France
b Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
c Romanian Institute of Science and Technology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
d Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States
f Interdisciplinary Center for Network Science and Applications, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States


Abstract
Mammals show a wide range of brain sizes, reflecting adaptation to diverse habitats. Comparing interareal cortical networks across brains of different sizes and mammalian orders provides robust information on evolutionarily preserved features and species-specific processing modalities. However, these networks are spatially embedded, directed, and weighted, making comparisons challenging. Using tract tracing data from macaque and mouse, we show the existence of a general organizational principle based on an exponential distance rule (EDR) and cortical geometry, enabling network comparisons within the same model framework. These comparisons reveal the existence of network invariants between mouse and macaque, exemplified in graph motif profiles and connection similarity indices, but also significant differences, such as fractionally smaller and much weaker long-distance connections in the macaque than in mouse. The latter lends credence to the prediction that long-distance cortico-cortical connections could be very weak in the much-expanded human cortex, implying an increased susceptibility to disconnection syndromes such as Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Finally, our data from tracer experiments involving only gray matter connections in the primary visual areas of both species show that an EDR holds at local scales as well (within 1.5 mm), supporting the hypothesis that it is a universally valid property across all scales and, possibly, across the mammalian class. © 2016 Public Library of Science. All rights reserved.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




11) 

Perkins, K.S.a , Tharp, B.E.b , Ramsey, A.T.c , Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv Unegv Waya), D.d
Mapping the Evidence to Improve Retention Rates in Addiction Services
(2016) Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 16 (3), pp. 233-251. 

DOI: 10.1080/1533256X.2016.1200055


a Research Scholar, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University inSt. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Doctoral Student, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, United States
c NIMH Postdoctoral Research Scholar, Center for Mental Health Services Research, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Associate Professor, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington Universityin St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Untreated alcohol and drug addiction continues to be a major health issue in the United States. To meet the challenges of this chronic illness, treatment should be based in the best, most up-to-date science. Treatment retention and completion have been continually shown to significantly improve health and wellness outcomes. Unfortunately, most individuals who enter programs do not successfully complete them. The goal of this study is to use evidence mapping to define the best evidence-based practices and strategies to improve retention rates within addiction services and to present recommendations. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Author Keywords
addiction;  client outcomes;  evidence mapping;  evidence-based practices;  retention;  treatment


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




12) 

Stanley, M., Macauley, S.L., Holtzman, D.M.
Changes in insulin and insulin signaling in Alzheimer's disease: Cause or consequence?
(2016) Journal of Experimental Medicine, 213 (8), pp. 1375-1385. 

DOI: 10.1084/jem.20160493


Department of Neurology, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the causal relationship remains poorly understood. Alterations in insulin signaling (IS) are reported in the AD brain. Moreover, oligomers/fibrils of amyloid-ß (Aß) can lead to neuronal insulin resistance and intranasal insulin is being explored as a potential therapy for AD. Conversely, elevated insulin levels (ins) are found in AD patients and high insulin has been reported to increase Aß levelsand tau phosphorylation, which could exacerbate AD pathology. Herein, we explore whether changes in ins and IS are a cause or consequence of AD. © 2016 Stanley et al.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




13) 

Werner, K.B.a , Grant, J.D.b , McCutcheon, V.V.b , Madden, P.A.F.b , Heath, A.C.b , Bucholz, K.K.b , Sartor, C.E.c d
Differences in Childhood Physical Abuse Reporting and the Association between CPA and Alcohol Use Disorder in European American and African American Women
(2016) Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 (4), pp. 423-433. 

DOI: 10.1037/adb0000174


a George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, 4560 Clayton Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, United States
c Alcohol Research Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, United States
d Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, School of Medicine, United States


Abstract
The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD-and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. © 2016 American Psychological Association.


Author Keywords
alcohol use disorder;  Childhood physical abuse;  racial disparities;  women


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




14) 

Wu, W.a , Liu, H.b , Song, F.c , Chen, L.-S.d , Kraft, P.e f g , Wei, Q.b , Han, J.a
Associations between smoking behavior-related alleles and the risk of melanoma
(2016) Oncotarget, 7 (30), pp. 47366-47375. 

DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.10144


a Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States
b Duke Cancer Institute, Duke School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States
c Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Centre of Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China
d Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States
f Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States
g Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States


Abstract
Several studies have reported that cigarette smoking is inversely associated with the risk of melanoma. This study further tested whether incorporating genetic factors will provide another level of evaluation of mechanisms underlying the association between smoking and risk of melanoma. We investigated the association between SNPs selected from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on smoking behaviors and risk of melanoma using 2,298 melanoma cases and 6,654 controls. Among 16 SNPs, three (rs16969968 [A], rs1051730 [A] and rs2036534 [C] in the 15q25.1 region) reached significance for association with melanoma risk in men (0.01 < = P values < = 0.02; 0.85 < = Odds Ratios (ORs) <= 1.20). There was association between the genetic scores based on the number of smoking behavior-risk alleles and melanoma risk with P-trend = 0.005 among HPFS. Further association with smoking behaviors indicating those three SNPs (rs16969968 [A], rs1051730 [A] and rs2036534 [C]) significantly associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day, CPD, with P = 0.009, 0.011 and 0.001 respectively. The SNPs rs215605 in the PDE1C gene and rs6265 in the BDNF gene significantly interacted with smoking status on melanoma risk (interaction P = 0.005 and P = 0.003 respectively). Our study suggests that smoking behavior-related SNPs are likely to play a role in melanoma development and the potential public health importance of polymorphisms in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster. Further larger studies are warranted to validate the findings.


Author Keywords
Case-control study;  CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster;  Risk of melanoma;  Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs);  Smoking behavior


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




 

15) 

McNeely, M.E.a b , Mai, M.M.c , Duncan, R.P.a b , Earhart, G.M.a b d
Differential effects of tango versus dance for PD in Parkinson disease
(2015) Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 7 (DEC), art. no. 239, . 

DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00239


a Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson's (D4PD). Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending 1-h group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (mini-balance evaluation systems test, four square step test, five times sit to stand, 6-min walk time) improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (movement disorders society unified Parkinson disease rating scale motor subsection) and functional mobility (timed up and go) improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD. © 2015 McNeely, Mai, Duncan and Earhart.


Author Keywords
Balance;  Dance;  Gait;  Mobility;  Parkinson disease;  Tango


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

August 12, 2016

1) 

Rezapour, M., Leuthardt, E.C., Gorlewicz, J.L.
Design of a steerable guide for laser interstitial thermal therapy of brain tumors
(2016) Journal of Medical Devices, Transactions of the ASME, 10 (3), art. no. 030909, . 

DOI: 10.1115/1.4033786


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




2) 

Meng, Q.-T., Cao, C., Liu, H.-M., Xia, Z.-Y., Li, W., Tang, L.-H., Chen, R., Jiang, M., Wu, Y., Leng, Y., Lee, C.C.
Safety and efficacy of etomidate and propofol anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing gastroscopy: A double-blind randomized clinical study
(2016) Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 12 (3), pp. 1515-1524. 

DOI: 10.3892/etm.2016.3475


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




3) 

Durkin, M.S., Benedict, R.E., Christensen, D., Dubois, L.A., Fitzgerald, R.T., Kirby, R.S., Maenner, M.J., Van Naarden Braun, K., Wingate, M.S., Yeargin-Allsopp, M.
Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy among 8-Year-Old Children in 2010 and Preliminary Evidence of Trends in Its Relationship to Low Birthweight
(2016) Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 30 (5), pp. 496-510. 

DOI: 10.1111/ppe.12299


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




4) 

Roland, L., Fischer, C., Tran, K., Rachakonda, T., Kallogjeri, D., Lieu, J.E.C.
Quality of Life in Children with Hearing Impairment: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
(2016) Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (United States), 155 (2), pp. 208-219. Cited 1 time.

DOI: 10.1177/0194599816640485


Document Type: Conference Paper
Source: Scopus




5) 

Bardone-Cone, A.M., Higgins, M.K., St. George, S.M., Rosenzweig, I., Schaefer, L.M., Fitzsimmons-Craft, E.E., Henning, T.M., Preston, B.F.
Behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise across stages of eating disorder recovery
(2016) Eating Disorders, pp. 1-16. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2016.1207452


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




6) 

Abel, M., Roediger, H.L.
Comparing the testing effects under blocked and mixed practice: The mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice are not affected by practice format
(2016) Memory and Cognition, pp. 1-12. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.3758/s13421-016-0641-8


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




7) 

Ledbetter, N.M., Chen, C.D., Monosov, I.E.
Multiple mechanisms for processing reward uncertainty in the primate basal forebrain
(2016) Journal of Neuroscience, 36 (30), pp. 7852-7864. 

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1123-16.2016


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




8) 

Harris-Adamson, C., Eisen, E.A., Neophytou, A., Kapellusch, J., Garg, A., Hegmann, K.T., Thiese, M.S., Dale, A.M., Evanoff, B., Bao, S., Silverstein, B., Gerr, F., Burt, S., Rempel, D.
Biomechanical and psychosocial exposures are independent risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: Assessment of confounding using causal diagrams
(2016) Occupational and Environmental Medicine, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2016-103634


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




9) 

Malaia, E., Bates, E., Seitzman, B., Coppess, K.
Altered brain network dynamics in youths with autism spectrum disorder
(2016) Experimental Brain Research, pp. 1-7. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s00221-016-4737-y


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




10) 

Ellingson, J.M., Richmond-Rakerd, L.S., Statham, D.J., Martin, N.G., Slutske, W.S.
Most of the genetic covariation between major depressive and alcohol use disorders is explained by trait measures of negative emotionality and behavioral control
(2016) Psychological Medicine, pp. 1-12. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1017/S0033291716001525


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




11) 

Prusaczyk, B., Cherney, S.M., Carpenter, C.R., DuBois, J.M.
Informed Consent to Research with Cognitively Impaired Adults: Transdisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities
(2016) Clinical Gerontologist, pp. 1-17. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/07317115.2016.1201714


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




12) 

Dlouhy, B.J., Miller, B., Jeong, A., Bertrand, M.E., Limbrick, D.D., Smyth, M.D.
Palliative epilepsy surgery in Dravet syndrome—case series and review of the literature
(2016) Child's Nervous System, pp. 1-6. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s00381-016-3201-4


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




13) 

Gorton, L.E., Dhar, R., Woodworth, L., Anand, N.J., Hayes, B., Ramiro, J.I., Kumar, A.
Pneumothorax as a Complication of Apnea Testing for Brain Death
(2016) Neurocritical Care, pp. 1-6. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s12028-016-0299-x


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




14) 

Guha, A., Brier, M.R., Ortega, M., Westerhaus, E., Nelson, B., Ances, B.M.
Topographies of cortical and subcortical volume loss in HIV and aging in the cART era
(2016) Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001111


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




15) 

Krystal, J.H., Abi-Dargham, A., Akbarian, S., Arnsten, A.F.T., Barch, D.M., Bearden, C.E., Braff, D.L., Brown, E.S., Bullmore, E.T., Carlezon, W.A., Carter, C.S., Cook, E.H., Daskalakis, Z.J., DiLeone, R.J., Duman, R.S., Grace, A.A., Hariri, A.R., Harrison, P.J., Hiroi, N., Kenny, P.J., Kleinman, J.E., Krystal, A.D., Lewis, D.A., Lipska, B.K., Marder, S.R., Mason, G.F., Mathalon, D.H., McClung, C.A., McDougle, C.J., McIntosh, A.M., McMahon, F.J., Mirnics, K., Monteggia, L.M., Narendran, R., Nestler, E.J., Neumeister, A., O'Donovan, M.C., Öngür, D., Pariante, C.M., Paulus, M.P., Pearlson, G., Phillips, M.L., Pine, D.S., Pizzagalli, D.A., Pletnikov, M.V., Ragland, J.D., Rapoport, J.L., Ressler, K.J., Russo, S.J., Sanacora, G., Sawa, A., Schatzberg, A.F., Shaham, Y., Shamay-Tsoory, S.G., Sklar, P., State, M.W., Stein, M.B., Strakowski, S.M., Taylor, S.F., Turecki, G., Turetsky, B.I., Weissman, M.M., Zachariou, V., Zarate, C.A., Zubieta, J.-K.
Constance E. Lieber, Theodore R. Stanley, and the Enduring Impact of Philanthropy on Psychiatry Research
(2016) Biological Psychiatry, 80 (2), pp. 84-86. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.05.004


Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus




16) 

Stepanova, E.V., Strube, M.J., Clote, L.E., Limes, D.
Pictorial Race Activation in Priming Measures
(2016) Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 38 (4), pp. 223-239. 

DOI: 10.1080/01973533.2016.1201484


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




17) 

Haubenberger, D., Clifford, D.B.
Clinical Trials in Neurovirology: Successes, Challenges, and Pitfalls
(2016) Neurotherapeutics, 13 (3), pp. 571-581. 

DOI: 10.1007/s13311-016-0440-8


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




18) 

Blum, K., Gold, M., Clark, H.W., Dushaj, K., Badgaiyan, R.D.
Should the United States Government Repeal Restrictions on Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment?
(2016) Substance Use and Misuse, pp. 1-6. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1200097


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




19) 

Bartal, I.B.-A., Shan, H., Molasky, N.M.R., Murray, T.M., Williams, J.Z., Decety, J., Mason, P.
Anxiolytic treatment impairs helping behavior in rats
(2016) Frontiers in Psychology, 7 (JUN), art. no. 850, . 

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00850


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




20) 

Huang, D., Ren, L., Qiu, C.-S., Liu, P., Peterson, J., Yanagawa, Y., Cao, Y.-Q.
Characterization of a mouse model of headache
(2016) Pain, 157 (8), pp. 1744-1760. 

DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000578


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




21) 

Taub, D.R., Page, J.
Molecular signatures of natural selection for polymorphic genes of the human dopaminergic and serotonergic systems: A review
(2016) Frontiers in Psychology, 7 (JUN), art. no. 857, . 

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00857


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




22) 

Lessov-Schlaggar, C.N., Rubin, J.B., Schlaggar, B.L.
The fallacy of univariate solutions to complex systems problems
(2016) Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10 (JUN), art. no. 267, . 

DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00267


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




23) 

Finnerup, N.B., Haroutounian, S., Kamerman, P., Baron, R., Bennett, D.L.H., Bouhassira, D., Cruccu, G., Freeman, R., Hansson, P., Nurmikko, T., Raja, S.N., Rice, A.S.C., Serra, J., Smith, B.H., Treede, R.-D., Jensen, T.S.
Neuropathic pain: An updated grading system for research and clinical practice
(2016) Pain, 157 (8), pp. 1599-1606. 

DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000492


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




24) 

Smit, D.J.A., Anokhin, A.P.
Development and genetics of brain temporal stability related to attention problems in adolescent twins
(2016) International Journal of Psychophysiology, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.07.498


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




25) 

Kharasch, E.D., Michael Brunt, L.
Perioperative opioids and public health
(2016) Anesthesiology, 124 (4), pp. 960-965. Cited 2 times.

DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001012


Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus




26) 

Siller, A.F., Lugar, H., Rutlin, J., Koller, J.M., Semenkovich, K., White, N.H., Arbelaez, A.M., Shimony, J., Hershey, T.
Severity of clinical presentation in youth with type 1 diabetes is associated with differences in brain structure
(2016) Pediatric Diabetes, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12420


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




27) 

Buchholz, K.R., Bruce, S.E., Koucky, E.M., Artime, T.M., Wojtalik, J.A., Brown, W.J., Sheline, Y.I.
Neural Correlates of Trait Rumination During an Emotion Interference Task in Women With PTSD
(2016) Journal of Traumatic Stress, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1002/jts.22112


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




28) 

Kang, P., De Bruin, G.S., Wang, L.H., Ward, B.A., Ances, B.M., Lim, M.M., Bucelli, R.C.
Sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
(2016) Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12 (7), pp. 1033-1039. 

DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.5944


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




 

29) 

Nguyen, T.-V., McCracken, J.T., Albaugh, M.D., Botteron, K.N., Hudziak, J.J., Ducharme, S.
Erratum to "A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood" [Psychoneuroendocrinology 63 (2016) 109-118]
(2016) Psychoneuroendocrinology, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.07.208


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

August 3, 2016

1) 

Treiman, R., Boland, K.
Graphotactics and spelling: Evidence from consonant doubling
(2017) Journal of Memory and Language, 92, pp. 254-264. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.jml.2016.07.001


Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, United States


Abstract
Choosing between alternative spellings for sounds can be difficult for even experienced spellers. We examined the factors that influence adults’ choices in one such case: single- versus double-letter spellings of medial consonants in English. The major systematic influence on the choice between medial singletons and doublets has been thought to be phonological context: whether the preceding vowel is phonologically long or short. With phonological context equated, we found influences of graphotactic context—both the number of letters in the spelling of the vowel and the spelling sequence following the medial consonant—in adults’ spelling of nonwords and in the English vocabulary itself. Existing models of the spelling process do not include a mechanism by which the letters that are selected for one phoneme can influence the choice of spellings for another phoneme and thus require modification in order to explain the present results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Author Keywords
Context;  Double letters;  Graphotactics;  Phonology;  Spelling;  Spelling models


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




2) 

Smagula, S.F.a , Wallace, M.L.a , Anderson, S.J.b , Karp, J.F.a c , Lenze, E.J.d , Mulsant, B.H.e , Butters, M.A.a , Blumberger, D.M.e , Diniz, B.S.f , Lotrich, F.E.a , Dew, M.A.a g , Reynolds, C.F., IIIa h
Combining moderators to identify clinical profiles of patients who will, and will not, benefit from aripiprazole augmentation for treatment resistant late-life major depressive disorder
(2016) Journal of Psychiatric Research, 81, pp. 112-118. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.07.005


a Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
b Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
c VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, United States
d Healthy Mind Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
e Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
f Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States
g Departments of Psychology, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical and Translational Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
h Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States


Abstract
Personalizing treatment for late-life depression requires identifying and integrating information from multiple factors that influence treatment efficacy (moderators). We performed exploratory moderator analyses using data from a multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of aripiprazole augmentation. Patients (n = 159) aged ≥60 years had major depressive disorder that failed to remit with venlafaxine monotherapy. We examined effect sizes of 39 potential moderators of aripiprazole (vs. placebo) augmentation efficacy using the outcome of percentage reduction in depressive symptom after 12 weeks. We then incorporated information from the individually relevant variables in combined moderators. A larger aripiprazole treatment effect was related to: white race, better physical function, better performance on Trail-Making, attention, immediate, and delayed memory tests, greater psychomotor agitation and suicidality symptoms, and a history of adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. A smaller aripiprazole treatment effect was observed in patients with: more pain and more work/activity impairment and libido symptoms. Combining information from race and Trail-Making test performance (base combined moderator (Mb*)) produced a larger effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.42)) than any individual moderator. Adding other individually relevant moderators in the full combined moderator (Mf*) further improved effect size (Spearman effect size = 0.39 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.52)) and identified a sub-group benefiting more from placebo plus continuation venlafaxine monotherapy than adjunctive aripiprazole. Combining moderators can help clinicians personalize depression treatment. We found the majority of our patients benefited from adjunctive aripiprazole, but a smaller subgroup that is identifiable using clinical measures appeared to benefit more from continuation venlafaxine plus placebo. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Author Keywords
Aripiprazole;  Combined moderators;  Late-life depression;  Moderators;  Personalized medicine


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




3) 

Castellini, G.a b , Lelli, L.a , Tedde, A.a , Piaceri, I.a , Bagnoli, S.a , Lucenteforte, E.a , Sorbi, S.a , Monteleone, A.M.c , James, H.J.d e f , Nacmias, B.a , Ricca, V.a
Analyses of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism (rs41423247) as a potential moderator in the association between childhood overweight, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes in Eating Disorders patients: A 6 years follow up study
(2016) Psychiatry Research, 243, pp. 156-160. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.06.033


a Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Italy
b Sexual Medicine and Andrology Unit, Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy
c Department of Psychiatry, University of Naples SUN, Naples, Italy
d Vermont Center for Children, Youth, and Families, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States
e Erasmus University, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands
f Department of Child Psychiatry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Childhood overweight and the SNP rs41423247 of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) were reported to represent predisposing factors for Eating Disorders (EDs). The distribution of the polymorphism was evaluated in 202 EDs patients, and in 116 healthy subjects. The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and self-reported questionnaires were administered at the admission to the clinic and at 3 time points (end of a cognitive behavioral therapy, 3 and 6 years follow up). G-allele was associated with childhood overweight, depressive disorder comorbidity, and diagnostic instability. G-allele carriers reporting childhood overweight showed greater frequency of subjective binge eating and emotional eating. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd


Author Keywords
BclI receptor gene polymorphism;  Childhood overweight;  Eating Disorders;  rs41423247


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




4) 

Carney, R.M.a , Freedland, K.E.a , Steinmeyer, B.C.a , Rubin, E.H.a , Rich, M.W.b
Clinical predictors of depression treatment outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease
(2016) Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 88, pp. 36-41. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.07.011


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Objectives Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who respond to treatment for depression are at lower risk of mortality than are nonresponders. This study sought to determine whether variables that have been shown to predict both depression treatment outcomes in psychiatric patients and cardiac events in patients with CHD, also predict poor response to depression treatment in patients with CHD. Methods One hundred fifty-seven patients with stable CHD who met the DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode were treated with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for 16 weeks, either alone or in combination with an antidepressant. Results The mean Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) score was 30.2 ± 8.5 at baseline and 8.5 ± 7.8 at 16 weeks. Over 50% of the participants were in remission (HAM-D-17 score ≤ 7) at the end of treatment. Of the hypothesized predictors, severe depression at baseline (p = 0.02), stressful life events during the first (p = 0.03) and last (p < 0.0001) 8 weeks of treatment, and the completion of CBT homework assignments (p = 0.001) predicted depression outcomes. History of prior episodes, anxiety symptoms, antidepressant therapy at study enrollment, and medical hospitalizations or emergency department visits during treatment did not predict treatment outcome. Conclusions Patients who are under considerable stress do not respond as well to evidence-based treatments for depression as do patients with less stress. If future studies support these findings, more work will be needed to better address stressful life events in patients who may otherwise remain at high risk for mortality and medical morbidity following depression treatment. © 2016


Author Keywords
Coronary heart disease;  Major depression;  Treatment


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




5) 

Cavazos-Rehg, P.A., Krauss, M.J., Sowles, S.J., Bierut, L.J.
Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram
(2016) Prevention Science, 17 (6), pp. 710-720. 

DOI: 10.1007/s11121-016-0669-9


Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8134, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. © 2016, Society for Prevention Research.


Author Keywords
Cannabis;  Marijuana;  Risk behavior;  Social media;  Substance use


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




6) 

Madaelil, T.P.a , Kansagra, A.P.a , Cross, D.T.a b , Moran, C.J.a b , Derdeyn, C.P.c d e
Mechanical thrombectomy in pediatric acute ischemic stroke: Clinical outcomes and literature review
(2016) Interventional Neuroradiology, 22 (4), pp. 426-431. 

DOI: 10.1177/1591019916637342


a Department of Neuroradiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 South Kingshighway Blvd., St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
c Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, United States
d Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, United States
e Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, United States


Abstract
There are limited data on outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy for pediatric stroke using modern devices. In this study, we report two cases of pediatric acute ischemic stroke treated with mechanical thrombectomy, both with good angiographic result (TICI 3) and clinical outcome (no neurological deficits at 90 days). In addition, we conducted a literature review of all previously reported cases describing the use of modern thrombectomy devices. Including our two cases, the aggregate rate of partial or complete vessel recanalization was 100% (22/22), and the aggregate rate of favorable clinical outcome was 91% (20/22). This preliminary evidence suggests that mechanical thrombectomy with modern devices may be a safe and effective treatment option in pediatric patients with acute ischemic stroke. © The Author(s) 2016.


Author Keywords
Pediatric;  stroke;  technique


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




7) 

Farber, S.J., Hoben, G.M., Hunter, D.A., Yan, Y., Johnson, P.J., Mackinnon, S.E., Wood, M.D.
Vascularization is delayed in long nerve constructs compared with nerve grafts
(2016) Muscle and Nerve, 54 (2), pp. 319-321. 

DOI: 10.1002/mus.25173


Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8238, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Introduction: Nerve regeneration across nerve constructs, such as acellular nerve allografts (ANAs), is inferior to nerve auto/isografts especially in the case of long defect lengths. Vascularization may contribute to poor regeneration. The time course of vascular perfusion within long grafts and constructs was tracked to determine vascularization. Methods: Male Lewis rat sciatic nerves were transected and repaired with 6 cm isografts or ANAs. At variable days following grafting, animals were perfused with Evans Blue albumin, and grafts were evaluated for vascular perfusion by a blinded observer. Results: Vascularization at mid-graft was re-established within 3–4 days in 6 cm isografts, while it was established after 10 days in 6 cm ANAs. Conclusions: Vascular perfusion is reestablished over a shorter time course in long isografts when compared with long ANAs. The differences in vascularization of long ANAs compared with auto/isografts suggest regenerative outcomes across ANAs could be affected by vascularization rates. Muscle Nerve 54: 319–321, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
acellular nerve allograft;  autograft;  hypoxia;  ischemia;  peripheral nerve;  vascular perfusion


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




8) 

Kwon, J.M.a , Abdel-Hamid, H.Z.b , Al-Zaidy, S.A.c , Mendell, J.R.d , Kennedy, A.e , Kinnett, K.f , Cwik, V.A.g , Street, N.h , Bolen, J.h , Day, J.W.i , Connolly, A.M.j
Clinical Follow-Up for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Newborn Screening: A Proposal
(2016) Muscle and Nerve, 54 (2), pp. 186-191. 

DOI: 10.1002/mus.25185


a Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States
b Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
c Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
d Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University and Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
e Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy, Headquarters, Hackensack, NJ, United States
f Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy, Middletown, OH, United States
g Muscular Dystrophy Association, Tucson, AZ, United States
h National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States
i Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States
j Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
New developments in the rapid diagnosis and treatment of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have led to growing enthusiasm for instituting DMD newborn screening (NBS) in the United States. Our group has been interested in developing clinical guidance to be implemented consistently in specialty care clinics charged with the care of presymptomatically identified newborns referred after DMD-NBS. We reviewed the existing literature covering patient-centered clinical follow-up after NBS, educational material from public health and advocacy sites, and federal recommendations on effective NBS follow-up. We discussed the review as a group and added our own experience to develop materials suitable for initial parent and primary care provider education. These materials and a series of templates for subspecialist encounters could be used to provide consistent care across centers and serve as the basis for ongoing quality improvement. Muscle Nerve 54: 186–191, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
clinical;  Duchenne muscular dystrophy;  follow-up;  long-term;  management;  newborn screening;  public health


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




9) 

Craver, C.F.a , Keven, N.b , Kwan, D.c , Kurczek, J.d , Duff, M.C.e f , Rosenbaum, R.S.g
Moral judgment in episodic amnesia
(2016) Hippocampus, 26 (8), pp. 975-979. 

DOI: 10.1002/hipo.22593


a Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology Program, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Philosophy-Neuroscience-Psychology Program, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
d Psychology Department, Haverford College, Haverford, Penninsylvania, Panama
e Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States
f Neuroscience Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States
g Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Centre for Vision Research, York University, Toronto and the Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, ON, Canada


Abstract
To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
decision-making;  episodic memory;  mental time travel;  moral reasoning;  prospection


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




10) 

Minter, M.R.a b , Zhang, C.c , Leone, V.b d , Ringus, D.L.b d , Zhang, X.a , Oyler-Castrillo, P.a , Musch, M.W.b d , Liao, F.e , Ward, J.F.c , Holtzman, D.M.e , Chang, E.B.b d , Tanzi, R.E.c , Sisodia, S.S.a b
Antibiotic-induced perturbations in gut microbial diversity influences neuro-inflammation and amyloidosis in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease
(2016) Scientific Reports, 6, art. no. 30028, . 

DOI: 10.1038/srep30028


a Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
b Microbiome Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
c Department of Neurology, Genetics and Aging Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States
d Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
e Department of Neurology, Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimers Disease Research Center, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Severe amyloidosis and plaque-localized neuro-inflammation are key pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to astrocyte and microglial reactivity, emerging evidence suggests a role of gut microbiota in regulating innate immunity and influencing brain function. Here, we examine the role of the host microbiome in regulating amyloidosis in the APP SWE /PS1 "E9 mouse model of AD. We show that prolonged shifts in gut microbial composition and diversity induced by long-term broad-spectrum combinatorial antibiotic treatment regime decreases Aβ plaque deposition. We also show that levels of soluble Aβ are elevated and that levels of circulating cytokine and chemokine signatures are altered in this setting. Finally, we observe attenuated plaque-localised glial reactivity in these mice and significantly altered microglial morphology. These findings suggest the gut microbiota community diversity can regulate host innate immunity mechanisms that impact Aβ amyloidosis.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




11) 

Kim, S.a b k , Barry, D.M.a b , Liu, X.Y.a b , Yin, S.a b , Munanairi, A.a b , Meng, Q.T.a c , Cheng, W.d , Mo, P.a e , Wan, L.a l , Liu, S.B.a b , Ratnayake, K.f , Zhao, Z.Q.a b , Gautam, N.b g , Zheng, J.h , Karunarathne, W.K.A.f , Chen, Z.F.a b i j
Facilitation of TRPV4 by TRPV1 is required for itch transmission in some sensory neuron populations
(2016) Science Signaling, 9 (437), art. no. ra71, . 

DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aaf1047


a Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
d Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China
e Department of Anesthesiology, Nanhai Hospital of Southern Medical University, Foshan, China
f Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States
g Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
h Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology, University of California School of Medicine, Davis, CA, United States
i Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
j Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
k Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Program in Craniofacial Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States
l Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China


Abstract
The transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) respond to chemical irritants and temperature. TRPV1 responds to the itch-inducing endogenous signal histamine, and TRPA1 responds to the itch-inducing chemical chloroquine. We showed that, in sensory neurons, TRPV4 is important for both chloroquineand histamine-induced itch and that TRPV1 has a role in chloroquine-induced itch. Chloroquine-induced scratching was reduced in mice in which TRPV1 was knocked down or pharmacologically inhibited. Both TRPV4 and TRPV1 were present in some sensory neurons. Pharmacological blockade of either TRPV4 or TRPV1 significantly attenuated the Ca2+ response of sensory neurons exposed to histamine or chloroquine. Knockout of Trpv1 impaired Ca2+ responses and reduced scratching behavior evoked by a TRPV4 agonist, whereas knockout of Trpv4 did not alter TRPV1-mediated capsaicin responses. Electrophysiological analysis of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells coexpressing TRPV4 and TRPV1 revealed that the presence of both channels enhanced the activation kinetics of TRPV4 but not of TRPV1. Biochemical and biophysical studies suggested a close proximity between TRPV4 and TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and in cultured cells. Thus, our studies identified TRPV4 as a channel that contributes to both histamine- and chloroquine-induced itch and indicated that the function of TRPV4 in itch signaling involves TRPV1-mediated facilitation. TRP facilitation through the formation of heteromeric complexes could be a prevalent mechanism by which the vast array of somatosensory information is encoded in sensory neurons.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




12) 

Guerrero, C.R.L.a , Pathak, S.b , Grange, D.K.b , Singh, G.K.b , Nichols, C.G.b , Lee, J.-M.b , Vo, K.D.b
Neurologic and neuroimaging manifestations of Cantú syndrome
(2016) Neurology, 87 (3), pp. 270-276. 

DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002861


a George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States
b Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Objective: To describe the neurologic and neuroimaging manifestations associated with Cantú syndrome. Methods: We evaluated 10 patients with genetically confirmed Cantú syndrome. All adult patients, and pediatric patients who were able to cooperate and complete the studies, underwent neuroimaging, including vascular imaging. A salient neurologic history and examination was obtained for all patients. Results: We observed diffusely dilated and tortuous cerebral blood vessels in all patients who underwent vascular imaging. White matter changes were observed in all patients who completed an MRI brain study. Two patients had a persistent trigeminal artery. One patient had an occluded right middle cerebral artery. One patient had transient white matter changes suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathic syndrome. Four patients had migraines with one patient having complicated migraines. Seizures were seen in early life but infrequent. The majority of patients had mild developmental delays and one patient had a diagnosis of autism. Conclusions: Cantú syndrome is associated with various neurologic manifestations, particularly cerebrovascular findings including dilated and tortuous cerebral vessels, white matter changes, and persistent fetal circulation. Involvement of the KATP SUR2/Kir6.1 subtype potentially plays an important role in the neurologic manifestations of Cantú syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




13) 

Ma, Y.a , Du, C.a , Cai, T.b , Han, Q.b , Yuan, H.b , Luo, T.b , Ren, G.b , Mburu, G.c d , Wang, B.c , Golichenko, O.c , Zhang, C.e
Barriers to community-based drug dependence treatment: Implications for police roles, collaborations and performance indicators
(2016) Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, art. no. 20879, . Cited 1 time.

DOI: 10.7448/IAS.19.4.20879


a Yuxi CDC, Yuxi City, Yunnan, China
b AIDS Care China, Kunming, Yunnan, China
c International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Brighton, United Kingdom
d Department of Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
e Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Introduction: Worldwide, people who use drugs (PWUD) are among the populations at highest risk for HIV infection. In China, PWUD are primarily sentenced to compulsory detainment centres, in which access to healthcare, including HIV treatment and prevention services, is limited or non-existent. In 2008, China's 2008 Anti-Drug Law encouraged the development and use of community-based drug dependence rehabilitation, yet there is limited evidence evaluating the efficacy and challenges of this model in China. In this study, we explore these challenges and describe how cooperation between law enforcement and health departments can meet the needs of PWUD. Methods: In 2015, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with all four staff members and 16 clients of the Ping An Centre No. 1 for community-based drug treatment, three local police officers and three officials from the local Centre for Disease Control. Interviews explored obstacles in implementing community-based drug dependence treatment and efforts to resolve these difficulties. Transcripts were coded and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA 11). Results: We identified three challenges to community-based drug treatment at the Ping An Centre No. 1: (1) suboptimal coordination among parties involved, (2) a divergence in attitudes towards PWUD and harm reduction between law enforcement and health officials and (3) conflicting performance targets for police and health officials that undermine the shared goal of treatment. We also identified the take-home methadone maintenance treatment model at the Ping An Centre No. 1 as an example of an early successful collaboration between the police, the health department and PWUD. Conclusions: To overcome barriers to effective community-based drug treatment, we recommend aligning the goals of law enforcement and public health agencies towards health-based performance indicators. Furthermore, tensions between PWUD and police need to be addressed and trust between them fostered, using community-based treatment centres as mediators. The preliminary success of the take-home methadone maintenance treatment pilot can serve as an example of how collaboration with the police and other government agencies can meet the needs of PWUD and contribute to the success of community-based treatment. © 2016 Ma Y et al.


Author Keywords
China;  Community-based treatment;  Drug use;  Harm reduction;  Police;  Policy


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




14) 

Soleimani-Meigooni, D.N.a , Schwetye, K.E.b , Angeles, M.R.c , Ryschkewitsch, C.F.d , Major, E.O.d , Dang, X.e , Koralnik, I.J.e , Schmidt, R.E.b , Clifford, D.B.a , Kuhlmann, F.M.c , Bucelli, R.C.a
JC virus granule cell neuronopathy in the setting of chronic lymphopenia treated with recombinant interleukin-7
(2016) Journal of NeuroVirology, pp. 1-6. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s13365-016-0465-0


a Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8111. 660 South Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Infectious Diseases, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD, United States
e Department of Neurology, Division of Neuro-Immunology and Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States


Abstract
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised patients. JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV-GCN) is caused by infection of cerebellar granule cells, causing ataxia. A 77-year-old man with iatrogenic lymphopenia presented with severe ataxia and was diagnosed with JCV-GCN. His ataxia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) improved with intravenous immunoglobulin, high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, mirtazapine, and mefloquine. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) therapy reconstituted his lymphocytes and reduced his CSF JCV load. One month after IL-7 therapy, he developed worsening ataxia and CSF inflammation, which raised suspicion for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Steroids were restarted and his ataxia stabilized. © 2016 Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc.


Author Keywords
Cerebellar ataxia;  Granule cell neuronopathy;  Il-7;  JC virus;  Lymphopenia


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




15) 

Purtle, J.a , Brownson, R.C.b , Proctor, E.K.c
Infusing Science into Politics and Policy: The Importance of Legislators as an Audience in Mental Health Policy Dissemination Research
(2016) Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, pp. 1-4. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s10488-016-0752-3


a Department of Health Management & Policy, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Nesbitt Hall, 3rd Floor, 3215 Market St., Philadelphia, PA, United States
b Division of Public Health Sciences, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Center for Mental Health Services Research, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Legislators (i.e., elected Senators and House Representatives at the federal- and state-level) are a critically important dissemination audience because they shape the architecture of the US mental health system through budgetary and regulatory decisions. In this Point of View, we argue that legislators are a neglected audience in mental health dissemination research. We synthesize relevant research, discuss its potential implications for dissemination efforts, identify challenges, and outline areas for future study. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




16) 

Aflaki, E.a , Borger, D.K.a , Moaven, N.a , Stubblefield, B.K.a , Rogers, S.A.b , Patnaik, S.c , Schoenen, F.J.b , Westbroek, W.a , Zheng, W.c , Sullivan, P.d , Fujiwara, H.e , Sidhu, R.e , Khaliq, Z.M.f , Lopez, G.J.a , Goldstein, D.S.d , Ory, D.S.e , Marugan, J.c , Sidransky, E.a
A new glucocerebrosidase chaperone reduces α-synuclein and glycolipid levels in iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons from patients with Gaucher disease and parkinsonism
(2016) Journal of Neuroscience, 36 (28), pp. 7441-7452. 

DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0636-16.2016


a Section of Molecular Neurogenetics, National Human Genome Research Institute University of Kansas, Bethesda, MD, United States
b University of Kansas Specialized Chemistry Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States
c National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States
d Clinical Neurocardiology Section, Bethesda, MD, United States
e Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Center and Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Cellular Neurophysiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States


Abstract
Among the known genetic risk factors for Parkinson disease, mutations inGBA1, the gene responsible for the lysosomal disorder Gaucher disease, are the most common. This genetic link has directed attention to the role of the lysosome in the pathogenesis of parkinsonism. To study how glucocerebrosidase impacts parkinsonism and to evaluate new therapeutics, we generated induced human pluripotent stem cells from four patients with Type 1 (non-neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, two with and two without parkinsonism, and one patient with Type 2 (acute neuronopathic) Gaucher disease, and differentiated them into macrophages and dopaminergic neurons. These cells exhibited decreased glucocerebrosidase activity and stored the glycolipid substrates glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine, demonstrating their similarity to patients with Gaucher disease. Dopaminergic neurons from patients with Type 2 and Type 1 Gaucher disease with parkinsonism had reduced dopamine storage and dopamine transporter reuptake. Levels of α-synuclein, a protein present as aggregates in Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies, were selectively elevated in neurons from the patients with parkinsonism or Type 2 Gaucher disease. The cells were then treated with NCGC607, a small-molecule noninhibitory chaperone of glucocerebrosidase identified by high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry structure optimization. This compound successfully chaperoned the mutant enzyme, restored glucocerebrosidase activity and protein levels, and reduced glycolipid storage in both iPSC-derived macrophages and dopaminergic neurons, indicating its potential for treating neuronopathic Gaucher disease. In addition, NCGC607 reduced α-synuclein levels in dopaminergic neurons from the patients with parkinsonism, suggesting that noninhibitory small-molecule chaperones of glucocerebrosidase may prove useful for the treatment of Parkinson disease. © 2016 the authors.


Author Keywords
Dopaminergic neurons;  Glucocerebrosidase;  Induced pluripotent stem cells;  Parkinsonism;  Pharmacological chaperone;  α-synuclein


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




17) 

Patel, K.R.a f , Ramsey, L.E.b , Metcalf, N.V.b , Shulman, G.L.b , Corbetta, M.b c d e
Early diffusion evidence of retrograde transsynaptic degeneration in the human visual system
(2016) Neurology, 87 (2), pp. 198-205. 

DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002841


a Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States
b Department of Neurology, School of MedicineMO, United States
c Department of Radiology, School of MedicineMO, United States
d Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of MedicineMO, United States
e Washington University in St. Louis, School of MedicineMO, United States
f Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Italy


Abstract
Objective: We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter integrity would offer early markers of retrograde transsynaptic degeneration (RTD) in the visual system after stroke. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal analysis of the sensitivity of DTI markers of optic tract health in 12 patients with postsynaptic visual pathway stroke, 12 stroke controls, and 28 healthy controls. We examined group differences in (1) optic tract fractional anisotropy (FA-asymmetry), (2) perimetric measures of visual impairment, and (3) the relationship between FA-asymmetry and perimetric assessment. Results: FA-asymmetry was higher in patients with visual pathway lesions than in control groups. These differences were evident 3 months from the time of injury and did not change significantly at 12 months. Perimetric measures showed evidence of impairment in participants with visual pathway stroke but not in control groups. A significant association was observed between FA-asymmetry and perimetric measures at 3 months, which persisted at 12 months. Conclusions: DTI markers of RTD are apparent 3 months from the time of injury. This represents the earliest noninvasive evidence of RTD in any species. Furthermore, these measures associate with measures of visual impairment. DTI measures offer a reproducible, noninvasive, and sensitive method of investigating RTD and its role in visual impairment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




18) 

Bodner, G.E.a , Huff, M.J.b , Lamontagne, R.W.a c , Azad, T.d
Getting at the source of distinctive encoding effects in the DRM paradigm: evidence from signal-detection measures and source judgments
(2016) Memory, pp. 1-9. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2016.1205094


a Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
b Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
c Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada
d Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA


Abstract
Studying Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) lists using a distinctive encoding task can reduce the DRM false memory illusion. Reductions for both distinctively encoded lists and non-distinctively encoded lists in a within-group design have been ascribed to use of a distinctiveness heuristic by which participants monitor their memories at test for distinctive-task details. Alternatively, participants might simply set a more conservative response criterion, which would be exceeded by distinctive list items more often than all other test items, including the critical non-studied items. To evaluate these alternatives, we compared a within-group who studied 5 lists by reading, 5 by anagram generation, and 5 by imagery, relative to a control group who studied all 15 lists by reading. Generation and imagery improved recognition accuracy by impairing relational encoding, but the within group did not show greater memory monitoring at test relative to the read control group. Critically, the within group’s pattern of list-based source judgments provided new evidence that participants successfully monitored for distinctive-task details at test. Thus, source judgments revealed evidence of qualitative, recollection-based monitoring in the within group, to which our quantitative signal-detection measure of monitoring was blind. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Author Keywords
distinctiveness;  DRM paradigm;  False recognition;  signal detection;  source judgments


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




19) 

Ippolito, J.E.a b , Brandenburg, M.W.a b , Ge, X.a , Crowley, J.R.c , Kirmess, K.M.c , Som, A.a , D'Avignon, D.A.d , Arbeit, J.M.e , Achilefu, S.a , Yarasheski, K.E.c , Milbrandt, J.b
Extracellular pH Modulates Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Cell Metabolism and Susceptibility to the Mitochondrial Inhibitor Niclosamide
(2016) PLoS ONE, 11 (7), art. no. e0159675, . 

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159675


a Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL, United States
e Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal variant of prostate cancer that is associated with castrate-resistant growth, metastasis, and mortality. The tumor environment of neuroendocrine prostate cancer is heterogeneous and characterized by hypoxia, necrosis, and numerous mitoses. Although acidic extracellular pH has been implicated in aggressive cancer features including metastasis and therapeutic resistance, its role in neuroendocrine prostate cancer physiology and metabolism has not yet been explored. We used the well-characterized PNEC cell line as a model to establish the effects of extracellular pH (pH 6.5, 7.4, and 8.5) on neuroendocrine prostate cancer cell metabolism. We discovered that alkalinization of extracellular pH converted cellular metabolism to a nutrient consumption-dependent state that was susceptible to glucose deprivation, glutamine deprivation, and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mediated inhibition of glycolysis. Conversely, acidic pH shifted cellular metabolism toward an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent state that was susceptible to OXPHOS inhibition. Based upon this mechanistic knowledge of pH-dependent metabolism, we identified that the FDA-approved anti-helminthic niclosamide depolarized mitochondrial potential and depleted ATP levels in PNEC cells whose effects were enhanced in acidic pH. To further establish relevance of these findings, we tested the effects of extracellular pH on susceptibility to nutrient deprivation and OXPHOS inhibition in a cohort of castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines C4-2B, PC-3, and PC-3M. We discovered similar pH-dependent toxicity profiles among all cell lines with these treatments. These findings underscore a potential importance to acidic extracellular pH in the modulation of cell metabolism in tumors and development of an emerging paradigm that exploits the synergy of environment and therapeutic efficacy in cancer. © 2016 Ippolito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




20) 

Greene, D.J.a b , Church, J.A.f , Dosenbach, N.U.F.c , Nielsen, A.N.c , Adeyemo, B.c , Nardos, B.c , Petersen, S.E.b c d , Black, K.J.a b c d , Schlaggar, B.L.a b c d e
Multivariate pattern classification of pediatric Tourette syndrome using functional connectivity MRI
(2016) Developmental Science, 19 (4), pp. 581-598. 

DOI: 10.1111/desc.12407


a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
b Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
c Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
d Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
e Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, United States
f Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, United States


Abstract
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Individuals with TS would benefit greatly from advances in prediction of symptom timecourse and treatment effectiveness. As a first step, we applied a multivariate method – support vector machine (SVM) classification – to test whether patterns in brain network activity, measured with resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) MRI, could predict diagnostic group membership for individuals. RSFC data from 42 children with TS (8–15 yrs) and 42 unaffected controls (age, IQ, in-scanner movement matched) were included. While univariate tests identified no significant group differences, SVM classified group membership with ~70% accuracy (p < .001). We also report a novel adaptation of SVM binary classification that, in addition to an overall accuracy rate for the SVM, provides a confidence measure for the accurate classification of each individual. Our results support the contention that multivariate methods can better capture the complexity of some brain disorders, and hold promise for predicting prognosis and treatment outcome for individuals with TS. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




21) 

Constantino, J.N.
Data from the Baby Siblings Research Consortium confirm and specify the nature of the female protective effect in autism: A commentary on Messinger et al.
(2016) Molecular Autism, 7 (1), art. no. 92, . Cited 1 time.

DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0092-x


Blanche F. Ittleson Professor of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, William Greenleaf Eliot Division of Child Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8504, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Sibling recurrence data from the Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) recapitulate results from very large clinical family studies that demonstrate the absence of the Carter effect and provide clarification of the nature of the female protective effect in ASD. This legacy prospective data collection confirmed marked differences in the proportions of males versus females who lie along deviant trajectories of social development in the setting of inherited liability to autism - a phenomenon which defines the female protective effect - and demonstrate that among affected children, sex differences are modest and homologous to those observed among non-ASD children. © 2016 The Author(s).


Author Keywords
Autism spectrum disorder;  Compensatory;  Female protective effect;  Resilience;  Sex


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




22) 

Stringfellow, E.J.a , Kim, T.W.b , Gordon, A.J.c , Pollio, D.E.d , Grucza, R.A.e , Austin, E.L.f g , Johnson, N.K.f , Kertesz, S.G.f h
Substance use among persons with homeless experience in primary care
(2016) Substance Abuse, pp. 1-8. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2016.1145616


a George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
b Clinical Addiction Research and Education (CARE) Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
c Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
d Department of Social Work, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
e Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
f Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
g Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
h Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA


Abstract
Background: Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There are less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. Methods: The authors surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at five federally funded programs in the United States, administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk were used to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Results: Almost one half of the sample (N = 601) had recently (within the past three months) used alcohol, and one third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past three months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate- or high-risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower-risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Conclusions: Less severe (moderate-risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high-risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. These findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Author Keywords
Homeless;  primary care;  substance use


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




23) 

Bornheimer, L.A.a b
Moderating effects of positive symptoms of psychosis in suicidal ideation among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia
(2016) Schizophrenia Research, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.07.009


a Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, United States
b McSilver Institute for Poverty Policy and Research, New York University, 20 Cooper Square, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10003, United States


Abstract
Background: Suicide is among the leading causes of death for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, with risk estimates being over eight folds greater than the general population. While the majority of research to date focuses on the role of symptoms of depression in suicide risk, there is a lack of consensus and understanding of the relationship between positive symptoms of psychosis and both suicidal ideation and attempt. The current study examined pathways of influence between symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis (i.e. hallucinations and delusions), hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among a population of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Data were obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE; n = 1460) at baseline. Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and symptoms of depression were measured by the Calgary Depression Scale (CDRS) and hallucinations and delusions by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Data were analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using Mplus 7. Results: Symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis, and hopelessness independently predicted suicidal ideation. Hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Lastly, positive symptoms of psychosis were found to moderate the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence for the role that positive symptoms of psychosis (specifically hallucinations and delusions) play in suicidal ideation, pointing towards the implication that beyond symptoms of depression, positive symptoms must be evaluated for and treated. © 2016.


Author Keywords
Positive symptoms of psychosis;  Schizophrenia;  Structural equation modeling;  Suicidal ideation;  Symptoms of depression


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




24) 

Fonseca, M.I.a , Chu, S.a , Pierce, A.L.b c , Brubaker, W.D.d , Hauhart, R.E.e , Mastroeni, D.f g i , Clarke, E.V.a j , Rogers, J.d , Atkinson, J.P.e , Tenner, A.J.a c h
Analysis of the putative role of CR1 in Alzheimer's disease: Genetic association, expression and function
(2016) PLoS ONE, 11 (2), art. no. e0149792, . 

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149792


a Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
b Department of Neurology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
c UCI Institute for Memory Impairment and Neurological Disorders, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
d SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, United States
e Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ, United States
g School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, European Graduate School of Neuroscience (EURON), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands
h Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States
i Biodesign Institute, Neurodegenerative Disease Research Center (NDRC), Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States
j Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR, United States


Abstract
Chronic activation of the complement system and induced inflammation are associated with neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent large genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1 or CD35) that are associated with late onset AD. Here, anti-CR1 antibodies (Abs) directed against different epitopes of the receptor, were used to localize CR1 in brain, and relative binding affinities of the CR1 ligands, C1q and C3b, were assessed by ELISA. Most Abs tested stained red blood cells in blood vessels but showed no staining in brain parenchyma. However, two monoclonal anti-CR1 Abs labeled astrocytes in all of the cases tested, and this reactivity was preabsorbed by purified recombinant human CR1. Human brain-derived astrocyte cultures were also reactive with both mAbs. The amount of astrocyte staining varied among the samples, but no consistent difference was conferred by diagnosis or the GWAS-identified SNPs rs4844609 or rs6656401. Plasma levels of soluble CR1 did not correlate with diagnosis but a slight increase was observed with rs4844609 and rs6656401 SNP. There was also a modest but statistically significant increase in relative binding activity of C1q to CR1 with the rs4844609 SNP compared to CR1 without the SNP, and of C3b to CR1 in the CR1 genotypes containing the rs6656401 SNP (also associated with the larger isoform of CR1) regardless of clinical diagnosis. These results suggest that it is unlikely that astrocyte CR1 expression levels or C1q or C3b binding activity are the cause of the GWAS identified association of CR1 variants with AD. Further careful functional studies are needed to determine if the variant-dictated number of CR1 expressed on red blood cells contributes to the role of this receptor in the progression of AD, or if another mechanism is involved. © 2016 Fonseca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




25) 

Mukherjee, P.a , Sabharwal, A.b , Kotov, R.c , Szekely, A.b , Parsey, R.c , Barch, D.M.d , Mohanty, A.b
Disconnection between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex in psychotic disorders
(2016) Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42 (4), pp. 1056-1067. 

DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbw012


a University of California Davis MIND Institute, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, United States
b Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States
c Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony-Brook, NY, United States
d Departments of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Distracting emotional information impairs attention more in schizophrenia (SCZ) than in never-psychotic individuals. However, it is unclear whether this impairment and its neural circuitry is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of SCZ, and whether it is even more specific to certain SCZ symptoms (eg, deficit syndrome). It is also unclear if this abnormality contributes to impaired behavioral performance and real-world functioning. Functional imaging data were recorded while individuals with SCZ, bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) and no history of psychotic disorders (CON) attended to identity of faces while ignoring their emotional expressions. We examined group differences in functional connectivity between amygdala, involved in emotional evaluation, and sub-regions of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control. Additionally, we examined correlation of this connectivity with deficit syndrome and real-world functioning. Behaviorally, SCZ showed the worst accuracy when matching the identity of emotional vs neutral faces. Neurally, SCZ showed lower amygdala-MPFC connectivity than BDP and CON. BPD did not differ from CON, neurally or behaviorally. In patients, reduced amygdala-MPFC connectivity during emotional distractors was related to worse emotional vs neutral accuracy, greater deficit syndrome severity, and unemployment. Thus, reduced amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity during emotional distractors reflects a deficit that is specific to SCZ. This reduction in connectivity is associated with worse clinical and real-world functioning. Overall, these findings provide support for the specificity and clinical utility of amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity as a potential neural marker of SCZ. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.


Author Keywords
Attention;  Bipolar;  Connectivity;  Emotion;  FMRI;  Psychosis;  Schizophrenia


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




26) 

Dineen, K.K.a b , DuBois, J.M.c
Between a rock and a hard place: Can physicians prescribe opioids to treat pain adequately while avoiding legal sanction?
(2016) American Journal of Law and Medicine, 42 (1), pp. 7-52. 

DOI: 10.1177/0098858816644712


a Saint Louis University, School of Law, United States
b Center for Health Care Ethics, Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics, United States
c Center for Clinical Research Ethics, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of General Medical Sciences, United States


Abstract
Prescription opioids are an important tool for physicians in treating pain but also carry significant risks of harm when prescribed inappropriately or misused by patients or others. Recent increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality has reignited scrutiny of prescribing practices by law enforcement, regulatory agencies, and state medical boards. At the same time, the predominant 4D model of misprescribers is outdated and insufficient; it groups physician misprescribers as dated, duped, disabled, or dishonest. The weaknesses and inaccuracies of the 4D model are explored, along with the serious consequences of its application. This Article calls for development of an evidence base in this area and suggests an alternate model of misprescribers, the 3C model, which more accurately characterizes misprescribers as careless, corrupt, or compromised by impairment. © 2016 The Author(s).


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




27) 

McDade, E.a , Sun, Z.b , Lee, C.-W.b , Snitz, B.b , Hughes, T.c , Chang, C.C.H.d e , Ganguli, M.b f
The association between pulse pressure change and cognition in late life: Age and where you start matters
(2016) Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 4, pp. 56-66. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.dadm.2016.03.008


a Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Washington University at St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
c Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Gerontology, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH, United States
d Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
e Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States
f Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States


Abstract
Introduction: Variations across studies in the association between blood pressure (BP) and cognition might be explained partly by duration of exposure to hypertension and partly by nonrandom attrition over time. Pulse pressure (PP) reflects arterial stiffness which may better reflect chronicity of hypertension. Methods: Over six annual cycles, 1954 individuals aged 65+ years from a prospective population-based cohort underwent BP measurements and cognitive evaluations. We examined the relationship of change in five cognitive domains to longitudinal PP patterns across the late-life age spectrum, before and after stratifying by baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and adjusting for attrition. Results: There were four longitudinal PP patterns: stable normal, stable high, increasing, and decreasing. Those with lower baseline SBP and an increasing or stable high PP had less decline in cognition, an effect that was attenuated with aging. Among those with higher baseline SBP, there were no differences across PP groups, but increasing age was consistently associated with greater cognitive decline. Discussion: The effect of PP on cognitive decline depends on age, baseline SBP, and the trajectory of PP change. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying cognitive aging should be recognized as nuanced and dynamic processes when exploring prevention and treatment targets in the elderly, so that the optimal timing and type of intervention can be identified. © 2016 The Authors.


Author Keywords
Cognitive decline;  Heterogeneity;  Pulse pressure


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




28) 

Wolf, T.J.a , Baum, C.M.b , Lee, D.c , Hammel, J.c
The development of the improving participation after stroke self-management Program (IPASS): An exploratory randomized clinical study
(2016) Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 23 (4), pp. 284-292. 

DOI: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1155278


a Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States
b Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States


Abstract
Introduction: There is a heavy emphasis in rehabilitation on restoration of function post-stroke at the expense of addressing how to manage the impact of stroke and the environment long term. Management of chronic health conditions is often and effectively addressed using self-management education; however, self-management is mostly focused on managing symptoms and health behaviors, not additional participation and community reintegration issues experienced following stroke. This study evaluated the Improving Participation after Stroke Self-Management Program (IPASS) to improve self-efficacy and participation in everyday life activities for individuals living with the long-term consequences of stroke. Methods: A multisite, single-blind, exploratory randomized clinical study was conducted with participants with mild-to-moderate chronic stroke (n = 185). Participants were randomized either to receive the IPASS intervention immediately or to a wait list control group. The assessment was completed pre- and post-intervention and at 6–9 months post-intervention follow-up. The primary outcome assessments included measures of self-efficacy to manage chronic health conditions and to participate in everyday life activities. Results: The results show that there was significant short-term increase in health-related self-efficacy both within-group and between-groups in managing chronic conditions which were retained at follow-up; the average effect size was 0.46, indicating moderate effect overall. Further, a significant short-term increase was found in participation self-efficacy, with an overall moderate effect size of 0.55. Conclusions: These results provide early support for the use of IPASS to help improve self-efficacy to manage health behaviors and to improve participation post-stroke. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings with an active control group and a more sensitive outcome measure to capture participation changes. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Author Keywords
Occupational therapy;  Participation;  Self-management;  Stroke


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




29) 

Pal, P.a , Daniels, B.P.d , Oskman, A.c , Diamond, M.S.a b c , Klein, R.S.b c d , Goldberg, D.E.a c
Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II compromises brain endothelial barriers and may promote cerebral malaria pathogenesis
(2016) mBio, 7 (3), art. no. e00617-16, . 

DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00617-16


a Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a disease of the vascular endothelium caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is characterized by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production, and vascular leakage. A distinguishing feature of P. falciparum infection is parasite production and secretion of histidine-rich protein II (HRPII). Plasma HRPII is a diagnostic and prognostic marker for falciparum malaria. We demonstrate that disruption of a human cerebral microvascular endothelial barrier by P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes depends on expression of HRPII. Purified recombinant or native HRPII can recapitulate these effects. HRPII action occurs via activation of the inflammasome, resulting in decreased integrity of tight junctions and increased endothelial permeability. We propose that HRPII is a virulence factor that may contribute to cerebral malaria by compromising endothelial barrier integrity within the central nervous system. IMPORTANCE Cerebral malaria is a devastating disease. Patients have high levels of the protein HRPII in their blood. We have found that endothelial cell barriers become leaky when treated with concentrations of HRPII similar to those found in patients. This result suggests that HRPII may be important in cerebral malaria. Our finding that HRPII functions by causing inflammation suggests points of intervention for therapy or vaccination against this disease. © 2016 Pal et al.


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




30) 

Iannotti, L.a , Jean Louis Dulience, S.a , Wolff, P.b , Cox, K.a , Lesorogol, C.a , Kohl, P.a
Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti
(2016) Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1111/apa.13483


a Institute for Public Health Brown School St. Louis, MO USA
b Washington University Medical School St. Louis, MO USA


Abstract
Aim: To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Methods: Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. Results: At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. © 2016 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.


Author Keywords
Anthropometry;  Child feeding practices;  Diarrhoea;  Motor and language developmental milestones


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




 

31) 

Wu, X.a , Eggebrecht, A.T.b , Ferradal, S.L.c , Culver, J.P.b d , Dehghani, H.a
Evaluation of rigid registration methods for whole head imaging in diffuse optical tomography
(2015) Neurophotonics, 2 (3), art. no. 035002, . 

DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.2.3.035002


a University of Birmingham, School of Computer Science, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
b Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 4525 Scott Avenue, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, United States
d Washington University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO, United States


Abstract
Functional brain imaging has become an important neuroimaging technique for the study of brain organization and development. Compared to other imaging techniques, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a portable and low-cost technique that can be applied to infants and hospitalized patients using an atlasbased light model. For DOT imaging, the accuracy of the forward model has a direct effect on the resulting recovered brain function within a field of view and so the accuracy of the spatially normalized atlas-based forward models must be evaluated. Herein, the accuracy of atlas-based DOT is evaluated on models that are spatially normalized via a number of different rigid registration methods on 24 subjects. A multileveled approach is developed to evaluate the correlation of the geometrical and sensitivity accuracies across the full field of view as well as within specific functional subregions. Results demonstrate that different registration methods are optimal for recovery of different sets of functional brain regions. However, the nearest point to point registration method, based on the EEG 19 landmark system, is shown to be the most appropriate registration method for image quality throughout the field of view of the high-density cap that covers the whole of the optically accessible cortex. © The Authors.


Author Keywords
atlas-based tomography;  diffuse optical tomography;  functional connectivity brain imaging;  registration;  sensitivity analyses;  whole head imaging


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus