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Neuroscience Publications Archive - July 2016

July 11, 2016

1) 

Hall, E.M.a , Leonard, J.b , Smith, J.L.c , Guilliams, K.P.d , Binkley, M.e , Fallon, R.J.f , Hulbert, M.L.a
Reduction in Overt and Silent Stroke Recurrence Rate Following Cerebral Revascularization Surgery in Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Severe Cerebral Vasculopathy
(2016) Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 63 (8), pp. 1431-1437. 

DOI: 10.1002/pbc.26022


a Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Neurosurgery, The Ohio State University School of Medicine and Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
c Department of Neurosurgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States
d Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States


Abstract
Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and moyamoya may benefit from indirect cerebral revascularization surgery in addition to chronic blood transfusion therapy for infarct prevention. We sought to compare overt and silent infarct recurrence rates in children with SCD undergoing revascularization. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all children with SCD and moyamoya treated at two children's hospitals. Clinical events and imaging studies were reviewed. Results: Twenty-seven children with SCD and confirmed moyamoya receiving chronic transfusion therapy were identified, of whom 12 underwent indirect cerebral revascularization. Two subjects had postoperative transient ischemic attacks and another had a subarachnoid blood collection, none of which caused permanent consequences. Two subjects had surgical wound infections. Among these 12 children, the rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence decreased from 13.4 infarcts/100 patient-years before revascularization to 0 infarcts/100 patient-years after revascularization (P = 0.0057); the postrevascularization infarct recurrence rate was also significantly lower than the overall infarct recurrence of 8.87 infarcts/100 patient-years in 15 children without cerebral revascularization (P = 0.025). Conclusions: The rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence was significantly lower following indirect cerebral revascularization. A prospective study of cerebral revascularization in children with SCD is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Author Keywords
cerebral vasculopathy;  moyamoya;  pediatric;  sickle cell anemia;  stroke


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




2) 

Chiang, H.-S.a , Eroh, J.a , Spence, J.S.a , Motes, M.A.a , Maguire, M.J.b , Krawczyk, D.C.a , Brier, M.R.c , Hart, J., Jr.a d , Kraut, M.A.a e
Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types
(2016) International Journal of Psychophysiology, 106, pp. 77-86. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.06.011


a Center for BrainHealth, The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX, United States
b Callier Center for Communication Disorders, The University of Texas at DallasTX, United States
c Medical Scientist Training Program, Washington University in St. LouisMO, United States
d Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
e Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States


Abstract
How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N = 48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1–4 Hz, theta: 4–7 Hz; alpha: 8–12 Hz; beta: 13–19 Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Author Keywords
EEG;  Memory retrieval;  Neural oscillations;  Semantics


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




3) 

Fischer, C.E.a b c , Golas, A.C.d , Schweizer, T.A.a b e f g , Munoz, D.G.a h i , Ismail, Z.j , Qian, W.a b , Tang-Wai, D.F.k l , Rotstein, D.L.m , Day, G.S.n
Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a game-changer?
(2016) Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 16 (7), pp. 849-859. 

DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2016.1184088


a Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
b Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
c Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
d Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Geriatric Psychiatry Subspecialty, Toronto, ON, Canada
e Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
f Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
g Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
h Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
i Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
j Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
k Department of Medicine (Neurology and Geriatric Medicine), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
l UHN Memory Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
m Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
n Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, Canada


Abstract
Introduction: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an inflammatory disorder of the brain that has garnered significant interest within the medical and lay communities. There is a need for formal guidelines to assist physicians in identifying patients who should undergo testing for NMDAR encephalitis, recognizing the high potential for this potentially treatable disease to mimic more common disorders, and consequently remain undiagnosed. Areas covered: This review highlights the impact of the discovery of NMDAR encephalitis on the fields of neurology and psychiatry, and discusses the steps that are necessary to improve recognition and treatment of NMDAR encephalitis. Expert commentary: While much progress has been made in our understanding of NMDAR encephalitis, much work remains to be done to delineate the underlying disease mechanisms and their relevance to brain function. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


Author Keywords
delusions;  encephalitis;  hallucinations;  NMDA receptor;  psychosis


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus




4) 

Diringer, M.N.
Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in the Age of Personalized Medicine
(2016) Neurocritical Care, pp. 1-2. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1007/s12028-016-0295-1


Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care Division, Washington University, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, United States


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




5) 

Simpson, E.W.a , Sims, O.T.b , North, C.S.c , Hong, B.A.d , Pollio, D.E.b
Family Psychoeducation for Hepatitis C Patients and Their Families: Recommendation for Clinicians
(2016) Social Work with Groups, pp. 1-12. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1080/01609513.2016.1149545


a University of Alabama, Capstone School of Nursing, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA
b University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Social Work, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
c The Altshuler Center for Education and Research Metrocare Services, The Nancy and Ray L. Hunt Chair in Crisis Psychiatry and Professor, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Dallas, Texas, USA
d Washington University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, St. Louis, Missouri, USA


Abstract
PsychoEducation Responsive to Families for Persons coping with Hepatitis C (HCV-PERF) is a multifamily psychoeducation group model designed to help patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and their families navigate the illness and improve their readiness for treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide information and recommendations for clinicians interested in using the HCV-PERF model. The article provides details of the intervention model and presents thematic categories that evolved from analysis of interviews with clinicians with experience conducting and facilitating HCV-PERF groups. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed to inform and guide the use of HCV-PERF. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Author Keywords
Groups;  hepatitis C;  psychoeducation


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




6) 

Staley, L.A.a n , Ebbert, M.T.W.a , Parker, S.a , Bailey, M.b , Weiner, M.d , Aisen, P.e , Petersen, R.f , Jack, C.R.f , Jagust, W.g , Trojanowki, J.Q.h , Toga, A.W.i , Beckett, L.j , Green, R.C.k , Saykin, A.J.l , Morris, J.m , Shaw, L.M.h , Ridge, P.G.a , Goate, A.M.c , Kauwe, J.S.K.a
Genome-wide association study of prolactin levels in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
(2016) BMC Genomics, 17, art. no. 436, . 

DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2785-0


a Brigham Young University, Department of Biology, Provo, UT, United States
b Washington University, Biology and Biomedical Sciences, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neuroscience Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
d UC San Francisco, United States
e UC San Diego, United States
f Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States
g UC Berkeley, United States
h U Pennsylvania, United States
i USC, United States
j UC Davis, United States
k Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, United States
l Indiana University, United States
m Washington University St. Louis, United States


Abstract
Background: Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that plays an essential role in lactation, tissue growth, and suppressing apoptosis to increase cell survival. Prolactin serves as a key player in many life-critical processes, including immune system and reproduction. Prolactin is also found in multiple fluids throughout the body, including plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods: In this study, we measured prolactin levels in both plasma and CSF, and performed a genome-wide association study. We then performed meta-analyses using METAL with a significance threshold of p < 5 × 10-8 and removed SNPs where the direction of the effect was different between the two datasets. Results: We identified 12 SNPs associated with increased prolactin levels in both biological fluids. Conclusions: Our efforts will help researchers understand how prolactin is regulated in both CSF and plasma, which could be beneficial in research for the immune system and reproduction. © 2016 The Author(s).


Author Keywords
Association;  CSF;  Genetics;  Plasma;  Prolactin


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




7) 

Ebbert, M.T.W.a n , Staley, L.A.a , Parker, J.a , Parker, S.a , Bailey, M.b , Weiner, M.d , Aisen, P.e , Petersen, R.f , Jack, C.R.f , Jagust, W.g , Trojanowki, J.Q.h , Toga, A.W.i , Beckett, L.j , Green, R.C.k , Saykin, A.J.l , Morris, J.m , Ridge, P.G.a , Goate, A.M.c , Kauwe, J.S.K.a
Variants in CCL16 are associated with blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid CCL16 protein levels
(2016) BMC Genomics, 17, art. no. 437, . 

DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-2788-x


a Brigham Young University, Department of Biology, Provo, UT, United States
b Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neuroscience Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
d UC San Francisco, United States
e UC San Diego, United States
f Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States
g UC Berkeley, United States
h University of Pennsylvania, United States
i USC, United States
j UC Davis, United States
k Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, United States
l Indiana University, United States
m Washington University St. Louis, United States


Abstract
Background: CCL16 is a chemokine predominantly expressed in the liver, but is also found in the blood and brain, and is known to play important roles in immune response and angiogenesis. Little is known about the gene's regulation. Methods: Here, we test for potential causal SNPs that affect CCL16 protein levels in both blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in a genome-wide association study across two datasets. We then use METAL to performed meta-analyses with a significance threshold of p 5x10-8. We removed SNPs where the direction of the effect was different between the two datasets. Results: We identify 10 SNPs associated with increased CCL16 protein levels in both biological fluids. Conclusions: Our results will help understand CCL16's regulation, allowing researchers to better understand the gene's effects on human health. © 2016 The Author(s).


Author Keywords
Association;  Blood;  Brain;  CCL16;  Cerebrospinal fluid;  Genetics;  Plasma


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




8) 

Helsten, D.L., Ben Abdallah, A., Avidan, M.S., Wildes, T.S., Winter, A., McKinnon, S., Bollini, M., Candelario, P., Burnside, B.A., Sharma, A.
Methodologic Considerations for Collecting Patient-reported Outcomes from Unselected Surgical Patients
(2016) Anesthesiology, . Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001217


From the Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Quality Improvement, Research and Informatics (INQUIRI), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (D.L.H., A.B.A., M.S.A., T.S.W., S.M., M.B., P.C., A.S.); Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (A.W.); and Wright State University and Premier Health Clinical Trials Research Alliance, Miami Valley Hospital, Dayton, Ohio (B.A.B.).


Abstract
BACKGROUND:: The impact of surgery on health is only appreciated long after hospital discharge. Furthermore, patients’ perceptions of postoperative health are not routinely ascertained. The authors instituted the Systematic Assessment and Targeted Improvement of Services Following Yearlong Surgical Outcomes Surveys (SATISFY-SOS) registry to evaluate patients’ postoperative health based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS:: This article describes the methods of establishing the SATISFY-SOS registry from an unselected surgical population, combining perioperative PROs with information from electronic medical records. Patients enrolled during their preoperative visit were surveyed at enrollment, 30 days, and 1-yr postoperatively. Information on PROs, including quality of life, return to work, pain, functional status, medical complications, and cognition, was obtained from online, mail, or telephone surveys. RESULTS:: Using structured query language, 44,081 patients were identified in the electronic medical records as having visited the Center for Preoperative Assessment and Planning for preoperative assessment between July 16, 2012, and June 15, 2014, and 20,719 patients (47%) consented to participate in SATISFY-SOS. Baseline characteristics and health status were similar between enrolled and not enrolled patients. The response rate for the 30-day survey was 62% (8% e-mail, 73% mail, and 19% telephone) and for the 1-yr survey was 71% (13% e-mail, 78% mail, and 8% telephone). CONCLUSIONS:: SATISFY-SOS demonstrates the feasibility of establishing a PRO registry reflective of a busy preoperative assessment center population, without disrupting clinical workflow. Our experience suggests that patient engagement, including informed consent and multiple survey modalities, enhances PROs collection from a large cohort of unselected surgical patients. Initiatives like SATISFY-SOS could promote quality improvement, enable efficient perioperative research, and facilitate outcomes that matter to surgical patients. Copyright © by 2016, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




9) 

Yang, Y.a , Zhao, H.a , Heath, A.C.b , Madden, P.A.F.b , Martin, N.G.c , Nyholt, D.R.a
Familial Aggregation of Migraine and Depression: Insights From a Large Australian Twin Sample
(2016) Twin Research and Human Genetics, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. 

DOI: 10.1017/thg.2016.43


a Statistical and Genomic Epidemiology Laboratory, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
c Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia


Abstract
Objectives: This research examined the familial aggregation of migraine, depression, and their co-occurrence. Methods: Diagnoses of migraine and depression were determined in a sample of 5,319 Australian twins. Migraine was diagnosed by either self-report, the ID migraine™ Screener, or International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Depression was defined by fulfilling either major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MiDD) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. The relative risks (RR) for migraine and depression were estimated in co-twins of twin probands reporting migraine or depression to evaluate their familial aggregation and co-occurrence. Results: An increased RR of both migraine and depression in co-twins of probands with the same trait was observed, with significantly higher estimates within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. For cross-trait analysis, the RR for migraine in co-twins of probands reporting depression was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.24–1.48) in MZ pairs and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95–1.14) in DZ pairs; and the RR for depression in co-twins of probands reporting migraine was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.38) in MZ pairs and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94–1.11) in DZ pairs. The RR for strict IHS migraine in co-twins of probands reporting MDD was 2.23 (95% CI: 1.81–2.75) in MZ pairs and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.34–1.79) in DZ pairs; and the RR for MDD in co-twins of probands reporting IHS migraine was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13–1.62) in MZ pairs and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93–1.22) in DZ pairs. Conclusions: We observed significant evidence for a genetic contribution to familial aggregation of migraine and depression. Our findings suggest a bi-directional association between migraine and depression, with an increased risk for depression in relatives of probands reporting migraine, and vice versa. However, the observed risk for migraine in relatives of probands reporting depression was considerably higher than the reverse. These results add further support to previous studies suggesting that patients with comorbid migraine and depression are genetically more similar to patients with only depression than patients with only migraine. Copyright © The Author(s) 2016


Author Keywords
bi-directional association;  depression;  familial aggregation;  migraine;  relative risk


Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus




10) 

Ma, N.a b , Siegfried, C.a , Kubota, M.a c , Huang, J.a , Liu, Y.a , Liu, M.a , Dana, B.a , Huang, A.a , Beebe, D.a , Yan, H.b , Shui, Y.-B.a
Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related transporters in human and mouse eyes
(2016) Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 57 (7), pp. 3440-3450. 

DOI: 10.1167/iovs.16-19162


a Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Ophthalmology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China
c Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan


Abstract
PURPOSE. Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in the eye. Ascorbic acid is usually transported by sodium-dependent AsA transporters (SVCTs), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) by glucose transporters (GLUTs). This study investigates these AsA-related transporters in human compared with mouse eyes. METHODS. Five pairs of human donor eyes and 15 pairs of mouse eyes were collected. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were performed to detect SVCTs and GLUTs expression in the ciliary epithelium, retina, and lens epithelial cells (LECs). These tissues were isolated with laser microdissection followed by extraction of total RNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to examine the mRNA level of SVCTs and GLUTs in human and mouse ocular tissues. RESULTS. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization showed SVCT2 and GLUT1 expression in human ciliary epithelium with varied distributions. Sodium-dependent AsA transporter 2 is expressed only in the pigmented epithelium (PE), and GLUT1 is predominately expressed in the nonpigmented epithelium (NPE). However, SVCT2 was not identified in mouse ciliary epithelium, whereas GLUT1 expressed in both PE and NPE. Laser microdissection and qPCR revealed high levels of SVCT2 mRNA in human RPE cells and murine neural retina. Sodiumdependent AsA transporter 1 mRNA could be detected only in human and murine LECs. Glucose transporter 3 and GLUT4 mRNA could not be detected in either the human or mouse ciliary processes or in the lens epithelium. CONCLUSIONS. These fundamental findings indicate AsA transporter expression in eyes of humans is significantly different compared with mice. This may explain why human aqueous and vitreous humors contain higher AsA levels compared with other animals. © 2016, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Inc. All rights reserved.


Author Keywords
Ascorbic acid;  GLUT1;  SVCT2;  Transporters


Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus




 

11) 

Tang, Y.-Y.a , Tang, R.b , Posner, M.I.c
Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse
(2016) Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163, pp. S13-S18. 

DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.11.041


a aDepartment of Psychological Sciences, MS 2051 Psychology Building, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States
b Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Psychology, 1227 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States


Abstract
Background The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), emotional dysregulation (negative mood) and increased stress reactivity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain areas. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks including those leading to improved emotion regulation and thus may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction. Methods In a series of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we tested whether increased ACC/mPFC activity is related to better self-control abilities in executive functions, emotion regulation and stress response in healthy and addicted populations. After a brief mindfulness training (Integrative Body-Mind Training, IBMT), we used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure emotion regulation, salivary cortisol for the stress response and fMRI for brain functional and DTI structural changes. Relaxation training was used to serve as an active control. Results In both smokers and nonsmokers, improved self-control abilities in emotion regulation and stress reduction were found after training and these changes were related to increased ACC/mPFC activity following training. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced ACC/mPFC activity in the self-control network before training, and these deficits were ameliorated after training. Conclusions These results indicate that promoting emotion regulation and improving ACC/mPFC brain activity can help for addiction prevention and treatment. © 2016 The Authors


Author Keywords
Brain mechanism;  Emotion regulation;  Implusivity;  Mindfulness meditation;  Reduction of addiction;  Self-control


Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus