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WUSTL Neuroscience Publications Archive - March 2014

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 March 17, 2014

March 23, 2014

March 31, 2014

March 31, 2014

Saleem, K.S.a b , Miller, B.a , Price, J.L.a Subdivisions and connectional networks of the lateral prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey
 (2014) Journal of Comparative Neurology, 522 (7), pp. 1641-1690.

a Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States


Neuroanatomical studies have long indicated that corticocortical connections are organized in networks that relate distinct sets of areas. Such networks have been emphasized by development of functional imaging methods for correlating activity across the cortex. Previously, two networks were recognized in the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, the "orbital" and "medial" networks (OPFC and MPFC, respectively). In this study, three additional networks are proposed for the lateral prefrontal cortex: 1) a ventrolateral network (VLPFC) in and ventral to the principal sulcus; 2) a dorsal network (DPFC) in and dorsal to the principal sulcus and in the frontal pole; 3) a caudolateral network (CLPFC) in and rostral to the arcuate sulcus and the caudal principal sulcus. The connections of the first two networks are described here. Areas in each network are connected primarily with other areas in the same network, with overlaps around the principal sulcus. The VLPFC and DPFC are also connected with the OPFC and MPFC, respectively. Outside the prefrontal cortex, the VLPFC connects with specific areas related to somatic/visceral sensation and vision, in the frontoparietal operculum, insula, ventral bank/fundus of the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal cortex. In contrast, the DPFC connects with the rostral superior temporal gyrus, dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, parahippocampal cortex, and posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. Area 45a, in caudal VLPFC, is unique, having connections with all the networks. Its extrinsic connections resemble those of the DPFC. In addition, it has connections with both auditory belt/parabelt areas, and visual related areas. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Author Keywords
CLPFC;  Connections;  DPFC;  Inferior temporal cortex;  Insula;  LPFC;  MPFC;  OMPFC;  OPFC;  Parietal cortex;  Superior temporal gyrus;  Superior temporal sulcus;  VLPFC

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Sutphen, C.L.a b c , Fagan, A.M.a b c , Holtzman, D.M.a b c d

Progress update: Fluid and imaging biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease

(2014) Biological Psychiatry, 75 (7), pp. 520-526. Cited 1 time.

a Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Development Biology (DMH), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing health crisis around the world. Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of AD pathogenesis, there is currently no effective treatment to delay onset or prevent the disease. The focus has now shifted to the identification and treatment of AD in the early clinical stages as well as before cognitive symptoms emerge - during the long preclinical stage. It is possible that diagnosis of individuals with AD will be more accurate when clinical symptoms and signs are combined with biomarkers, which can improve both the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of AD and its differentiation from the other neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses fluid and imaging biomarkers that have shown promise in such areas, as well as some of the current challenges that face the field. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Author Keywords
Alzheimer's disease;  biomarker;  cerebrospinal fluid;  diagnosis;  neuroimaging;  prognosis

Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus


Xian, H.a b , Gonzalez, C.c , Deych, E.c , Farris, S.d , Ding, J.e , Shannon, W.c , McCall, W.V.f

Age-Related Effects on Circadian Phase in the Sleep of Patients with Depression and Insomnia
(2014) Behavioral Sleep Medicine, . Article in Press.

a College for Public Health and Social Justice Saint Louis University
b Biostatistics, Salus Center, St. Louis
c Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis
d Wake Forest University School of Medicine
e Washington University in St. Louis
f The Medical College of Georgia Georgia Regents University


We examined whether an age-related phase advance was present in 60 patients with depression and insomnia (mean age 41.5 [12.5] years) using diaries and 5 weekdays of actigraphy. Actigraphy was analyzed with functional data analysis. The low point of activity (bathyphase) for each subject was fitted by cosine function with 24-hr cycle time. Linear regression analysis revealed that increasing age was associated with earlier bedtimes (p < 0.001), shorter sleep latencies (p < 0.05), and earlier bathyphase (p < 0.001). These findings are consistent with prior reports of age-dependent phase-advances in sleep behavior in self-reported good sleepers and reinforce the premise that individualized behavioral therapy of older persons with insomnia may require prescription of earlier bedtimes and earlier rise times than would be employed in younger persons with insomnia. Further, we demonstrate that aging of the sleep system, at least as reflected in actigraphy, occurs as early as the third decade. Copyright Taylor & Francis.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus 

Camp, K.M.a , Parisi, M.A.b , Acosta, P.B.c , Berry, G.T.d , Bilder, D.A.e , Blau, N.f g , Bodamer, O.A.h , Brosco, J.P.i , Brown, C.S.j , Burlina, A.B.k , Burton, B.K.l , Chang, C.S.m , Coates, P.M.a , Cunningham, A.C.n , Dobrowolski, S.F.o , Ferguson, J.H.p , Franklin, T.D.j , Frazier, D.M.q , Grange, D.K.r , Greene, C.L.s , Groft, S.C.p , Harding, C.O.t , Howell, R.R.h , Huntington, K.L.t , Hyatt-Knorr, H.D.p , Jevaji, I.P.u , Levy, H.L.d , Lichter-Konecki, U.v , Lindegren, M.L.w , Lloyd-Puryear, M.A.a , Matalon, K.x , MacDonald, A.y , McPheeters, M.L.z , Mitchell, J.J.aa , Mofidi, S.ab , Moseley, , Mueller, , Mulberg, , Nerurkar, L.S.p , Ogata, , Pariser, , Prasad, , Pridjian, G.n , Rasmussen, S.A.ah , Reddy, U.M.b , Rohr, , Singh, R.H.c , Sirrs, S.M.aj , Stremer, S.E.ak , Tagle, , Thompson, , Urv, T.K.b , Utz, , van Spronsen, , Vockley, J.o , Waisbren, S.E.d , Weglicki, L.S.ap , White, , Whitley, , Wilfond, , Yannicelli, , Young,

Phenylketonuria Scientific Review Conference: State of the science and future research needs

(2014) Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, . Article in Press.

a Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA
b Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
c Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
d Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
e Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
f University Children's Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
g University Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland
h University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA
i University of Miami Mailman Center for Child Development, Miami, FL 33101, USA
j National PKU Alliance, USA
k University Hospital, 35128 Padova, Italy
l Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
m Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
n Tulane University Medical School, Hayward Genetics Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
o University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
p Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA
q University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
r Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
s University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
t Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
u Office of Research on Women's Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
v George Washington University, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
w Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville TN 37203, USA
x University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
y Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK
z Vanderbilt Evidence-based Practice Center, Institute for Medicine and Public Health, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
aa McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec H3H 1P3, Canada
ab Maria Fareri Children's Hospital of Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
ac University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
ad Office of Orphan Products Development, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
ae Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
af University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
ag BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., San Rafael, CA 94901, USA
ah Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
ai Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
aj Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1M9, Canada
ak PKU and Allied Disorders of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA
al National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
am The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia
an University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
ao University of Groningen, University Medical Center of Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Netherlands
ap National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
aq Department of Psychology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
ar Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
as Nutricia North America, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
at The Young Face, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Cumming, GA 30041, USA


New developments in the treatment and management of phenylketonuria (PKU) as well as advances in molecular testing have emerged since the National Institutes of Health 2000 PKU Consensus Statement was released. An NIH State-of-the-Science Conference was convened in 2012 to address new findings, particularly the use of the medication sapropterin to treat some individuals with PKU, and to develop a research agenda. Prior to the 2012 conference, five working groups of experts and public members met over a 1-year period. The working groups addressed the following: long-term outcomes and management across the lifespan; PKU and pregnancy; diet control and management; pharmacologic interventions; and molecular testing, new technologies, and epidemiologic considerations. In a parallel and independent activity, an Evidence-based Practice Center supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality conducted a systematic review of adjuvant treatments for PKU; its conclusions were presented at the conference. The conference included the findings of the working groups, panel discussions from industry and international perspectives, and presentations on topics such as emerging treatments for PKU, transitioning to adult care, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory perspective. Over 85 experts participated in the conference through information gathering and/or as presenters during the conference, and they reached several important conclusions. The most serious neurological impairments in PKU are preventable with current dietary treatment approaches. However, a variety of more subtle physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of even well-controlled PKU are now recognized. The best outcomes in maternal PKU occur when blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations are maintained between 120 and 360 μmol/L before and during pregnancy. The dietary management treatment goal for individuals with PKU is a blood Phe concentration between 120 and 360 μmol/L. The use of genotype information in the newborn period may yield valuable insights about the severity of the condition for infants diagnosed before maximal Phe levels are achieved. While emerging and established genotype-phenotype correlations may transform our understanding of PKU, establishing correlations with intellectual outcomes is more challenging. Regarding the use of sapropterin in PKU, there are significant gaps in predicting response to treatment; at least half of those with PKU will have either minimal or no response. A coordinated approach to PKU treatment improves long-term outcomes for those with PKU and facilitates the conduct of research to improve diagnosis and treatment. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, and impact a larger proportion of individuals with PKU are needed. However, it is imperative that treatment guidelines and the decision processes for determining access to treatments be tied to a solid evidence base with rigorous standards for robust and consistent data collection. The process that preceded the PKU State-of-the-Science Conference, the conference itself, and the identification of a research agenda have facilitated the development of clinical practice guidelines by professional organizations and serve as a model for other inborn errors of metabolism.

Author Keywords
Glycomacropeptide;  Hyperphenylalaninemia;  Large neutral amino acids;  Maternal PKU;  Phenylketonuria;  Sapropterin

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus


Simon, T.D.a b , Butler, J.c , Whitlock, K.B.b , Browd, S.R.d , Holubkov, R.c , Kestle, J.R.W.e , Kulkarni, A.V.f , Langley, M.e , Limbrick Jr., D.D.g , Mayer-Hamblett, N.a b , Tamber, M.h , Wellons III, J.C.i , Whitehead, W.E.j , Riva-Cambrin, J.e

Risk Factors for First Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunt Infection: Findings from a Multi-Center Prospective Cohort Study

(2014) Journal of Pediatrics, . Article in Press.

a Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington/Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA
b Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA
c Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
d Department of Neurosurgery, University of Washington/ Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA
e Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
f Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
g Department of Neurosurgery, St Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University in Saint Louis, St Louis, MO
h Division of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
i Section of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Division of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Alabama, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
j Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX


Objective: To quantify the extent to which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt revisions are associated with increased risk of CSF shunt infection, after adjusting for patient factors that may contribute to infection risk. Study design: We used the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network registry to assemble a large prospective 6-center cohort of 1036 children undergoing initial CSF shunt placement between April 2008 and January 2012. The primary outcome of interest was first CSF shunt infection. Data for initial CSF shunt placement and all subsequent CSF shunt revisions prior to first CSF shunt infection, where applicable, were obtained. The risk of first infection was estimated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model accounting for patient characteristics and CSF shunt revisions, and is reported using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI. Results: Of the 102 children who developed first infection within 12 months of placement, 33 (32%) followed one or more CSF shunt revisions. Baseline factors independently associated with risk of first infection included: gastrostomy tube (HR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1, 3.3), age 6-12 months (HR 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8), and prior neurosurgery (HR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2, 0.9). After controlling for baseline factors, infection risk was most significantly associated with the need for revision (1 revision vs none, HR 3.9, 95% CI, 2.2, 6.5; ≥2 revisions, HR 13.0, 95% CI, 6.5, 24.9). Conclusions: This study quantifies the elevated risk of infection associated with shunt revisions observed in clinical practice. To reduce risk of infection risk, further work should optimize revision procedures. © 2014 The Authors.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus 

Pettus-Davis, C.

Social support among releasing men prisoners with lifetime trauma experiences

(2014) International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, . Article in Press.

Washington University in St. Louis, Brown School of Social Work, Campus Box 1196, Goldfarb Hall, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States


High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Intervention;  Men;  Prisoners;  Reintegration;  Social support;  Trauma

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus



Sometimes Psychopaths get it Right: A Utilitarian Response to 'The Mismeasure of Morals'

(2014) Utilitas, . Article in Press.

Washington University in St Louis


A well-publicized study entitled 'The Mismeasure of Morals' (Bartels and Pizarro, 2011) purportedly provides evidence that utilitarian solutions to a particular class of moral dilemmas are endorsed primarily by individuals with psychopathic traits. According to the authors, these findings give researchers reason to refrain from classifying utilitarian judgements as morally optimal. This article is a two-part response to the study. The first part comprises concerns about the methodology used and the adequacy of the data for supporting the authors' conclusions. The second part seeks to undermine the suggestion that if anti-social individuals are the ones most likely to endorse utilitarian solutions to the target dilemmas, we should be sceptical about those solutions. I argue that the character of individuals most likely to make a given moral judgement is an unreliable indicator of the quality of that judgement. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus


Pyc, M.A.a , Balota, D.A.a , McDermott, K.B.a , Tully, T.b , Roediger III, H.L.a

Between-list lag effects in recall depend on retention interval

(2014) Memory & Cognition, . Article in Press.

a Department of Psychology, Washington University, One Brookings DriveBox 1125, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
b Dart Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, United States


Although the benefits of spaced retrieval for long-term retention are well established, the majority of this work has involved spacing over relatively short intervals (on the order of seconds or minutes). In the present experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of spaced retrieval across relatively short intervals (within a single session), as compared to longer intervals (between sessions spaced a day apart), for long-term retention (i.e., one day or one week). Across a series of seven experiments, participants (N = 536) learned paired associates to a criterion of 70 % accuracy and then received one test-feedback trial for each item. The test-feedback trial occurred within 10 min of reaching criterion (short lag) or one day later (long lag). Then, a final test occurred one day (Exps. 1-3) or one week (Exps. 4 and 5) after the test-feedback trial. Across the different materials and methods in Experiments 1-3, we found little benefit for the long-lag relative to the short-lag schedule in final recall performance-that is, no lag effect-but large effects on the retention of information from the test-feedback to the final test phase. The results from the experiments with the one-week retention interval (Exps. 4 and 5) indicated a benefit of the long-lag schedule on final recall performance (a lag effect), as well as on retention. This research shows that even when the benefits of lag are eliminated at a (relatively long) one-day retention interval, the lag effect reemerges after a one-week retention interval. The results are interpreted within an extension of the bifurcation model to the spacing effect. © 2014 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Author Keywords
Lag effects;  Memory;  Recall;  Spacing effects

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus


Liu, Z.a b , Zhou, J.a c , Li, Y.a d , Hu, F.a d , Lu, Y.a , Ma, M.a , Feng, Q.a , Zhang, J.-E.a g , Wang, D.a g , Zeng, J.a , Bao, J.a , Kim, J.-Y.e , Chen, Z.-F.e , ElMestikawy, S.f , Luo, M.a g

Dorsal raphe neurons signal reward through 5-HT and glutamate

 (2014) Neuron, 81 (6), pp. 1360-1374.

a National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China
b College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
c PTN Graduate Program, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100081, China
d Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
e Center for the Study of Itch, Departments of Anesthesiology, Psychiatry, and Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States
f Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U952, 75005 Paris, France
g School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China


The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is akey center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks, and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortex. Although DRN Pet-1 neurons are often associated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the abilityof DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors andmight provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Pyc, M.A.a c , Rawson, K.A.b , Aschenbrenner, A.J.a

Metacognitive monitoring during criterion learning: When and why are judgments accurate?

 (2014) Memory & Cognition, . Article in Press.

a Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Kent State University, Kent, OH, United States
c Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, Box 1125, St Louis, MO 63130, United States


Research on metacognitive judgment accuracy during retrieval practice has increased in recent years. However, prior work had not systematically evaluated item-level judgment accuracy and the underlying bases of judgment accuracy in a criterion-learning paradigm (in which items are practiced until correctly recalled during encoding). Understanding these relationships during criterion learning has important theoretical implications for self-regulated learning frameworks, and also has applied implications for student learning: If the factors that influence metacognitive judgments are not predictive of subsequent test performance, students may make poor decisions during self-regulated learning. In the present experiments, participants engaged in test-restudy practice until items were recalled correctly. Once a given item reached criterion, participants made an immediate or delayed judgment of learning (JOL) for the item. A final cued-recall test occurred 30 min later. We examined judgment accuracy (the relationship between JOLs and test performance) and the underlying bases of judgment accuracy by evaluating cue utilization (the relationship between cues and JOLs) and cue diagnosticity (the relationship between cues and test performance). Immediate JOLs were only modestly related to subsequent test performance, and further analyses revealed that the cues related to JOLs were only weakly predictive of test accuracy. However, delaying JOLs improved both the accuracy of the JOLs and the diagnosticity of the cues that influenced judgments. © 2014 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Author Keywords
Memory;  Metamemory

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus


Harris-Hayes, M.a , Willis, A.W.b , Klein, S.E.b , Czuppon, S.a , Crowner, B.a , Racette, B.A.c

Relative mortality in U.S. medicare beneficiaries with parkinson disease and hip and pelvic fractures

(2014) Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A, 96 (4), pp. e271-e277.

a Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park, Campus Box 8502, St. Louis, MO 63108., United States
b Departments of Neurology, Washington University, School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
c Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States


Background: Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disease that affects gait and postural stability, resulting in an increased risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to estimate mortality associated with demographic factors after hip or pelvic (hip/pelvic) fracture in people with Parkinson disease. A secondary goal was to compare the mortality associated with Parkinson disease to that associated with other common medical conditions in patients with hip/pelvic fracture. Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study of 1,980,401 elderly Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with hip/pelvic fracture from 2000 to 2005 who were identified with use of the Beneficiary Annual Summary File. The race/ ethnicity distribution of the sample was white (93.2%), black (3.8%), Hispanic (1.2%), and Asian (0.6%). Individuals with Parkinson disease (131,215) were identified with use of outpatient and carrier claims. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of death associated with demographic and clinical variables and to compare mortality after hip/pelvic fracture between patients with Parkinson disease and those with other medical conditions associated with high mortality after hip/pelvic fracture, after adjustment for race/ethnicity, sex, age, and modified Charlson comorbidity score. Results: Among those with Parkinson disease, women had lower mortality after hip/pelvic fracture than men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]) = 0.62 to 0.64), after adjustment for covariates. Compared with whites, blacks had a higher (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.16) and Hispanics had a lower (HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.95) mortality, after adjustment for covariates. Overall, the adjusted mortality rate after hip/pelvic fracture in individuals with Parkinson disease (HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 2.37 to 2.46) was substantially elevated compared with those without the disease, a finding similar to the increased mortality associated with a diagnosis of dementia (HR = 2.73, 95% CI = 2.68 to 2.79), kidney disease (HR = 2.66, 95% CI = 2.60 to 2.72), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.43 to 2.53). Conclusions: Mortality after hip/pelvic fracture in Parkinson disease varies according to demographic factors. Mortality after hip/pelvic fracture is substantially increased among those with Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2014 By The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Caglayan, S.a , Takagi-Niidome, S.b , Liao, F.c d , Carlo, A.-S.a , Schmidt, V.a , Burgert, T.a , Kitago, Y.b , Fuc¨htbauer, E.-M.e , Fuc¨htbauer, A.e , Holtzman, D.M.c d , Takagi, J.b , Willnow, T.E.a

Lysosomal sorting of amyloid-β by the SORLA receptor is impaired by a familial Alzheimer's disease mutation

 (2014) Science Translational Medicine, 6 (223), art. no. 223ra20, . Cited 1 time.

a Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany
b Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
c Department of Neurology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
d Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
e Department of Molecular Biology, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark


SORLA/SORL1 is a unique neuronal sorting receptor for the amyloid precursor protein that has been causally implicated in both sporadic and autosomal dominant familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain concentrations of SORLA are inversely correlated with amyloid-β (Aβ) in mouse models and AD patients, suggesting that increasing expression of this receptor could be a therapeutic option for decreasing the amount of amyloidogenic products in affected individuals. We characterize a new mouse model in which SORLA is overexpressed, and show a decrease in Aβ concentrations in mouse brain. We trace the underlying molecular mechanism to the ability of this receptor to direct lysosomal targeting of nascent Ab peptides. Ab binds to the amino-terminal VPS10P domain of SORLA, and this binding is impaired by a familial AD mutation in SORL1. Thus, loss of SORLA's Aβ sorting function is a potential cause of AD in patients, and SORLA may be a new therapeutic target for AD drug development.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Knopik, V.S.a , Bidwell, L.C.a c , Flessner, C.a , Nugent, N.a , Swenson, L.d , Bucholz, K.K.b , Madden, P.A.F.b , Heath, A.C.b

DSM-IV defined conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: An investigation of shared liability in female twins

(2014) Psychological Medicine, 44 (5), pp. 1053-1064.

a Division of Behavioral Genetics, Rhode Island Hospital and Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Coro West Suite 204, 1 Hoppin St, Providence, RI 029 03, United States
b Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
c Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States
d Suffolk University, Boston, MA, United States


Background. DSM-IV specifies a hierarchal diagnostic structure such that an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnosis is applied only if criteria are not met for conduct disorder (CD). Genetic studies of ODD and CD support a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences but largely ignore the imposed diagnostic structure. Method. We examined whether ODD and CD share an underlying etiology while accounting for DSM-IV diagnostic specifications. Data from 1446 female twin pairs, aged 11-19 years, were fitted to two-stage models adhering to the DSM-IV diagnostic hierarchy. Results. The models suggested that DSM-IV ODD-CD covariation is attributed largely to shared genetic influences. Conclusions. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine genetic and environmental overlap among these disorders while maintaining a DSM-IV hierarchical structure. The findings reflect primarily shared genetic influences and specific (i.e. uncorrelated) shared/familial environmental effects on these DSM-IV-defined behaviors. These results have implications for how best to define CD and ODD for future genetically informed analyses. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

Author Keywords
Adolescence;  conduct disorder;  genetics;  oppositional defiant disorder;  twins

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Lumba-Brown, A.a b c , Harley, J.b c , Lucio, S.c , Vaida, F.d e , Hilfiker, M.f

Hypertonic saline as a therapy for pediatric concussive pain: A randomized controlled trial of symptom treatment in the emergency department

(2014) Pediatric Emergency Care, 30 (3), pp. 139-145.

a Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8116, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, United States
b, United States
c Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States
d Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine University of California, San Diego, CA, United States
e Statistics Unit, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program, United States
f Rady Children's Hospital, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States



OBJECTIVE: Three-percent hypertonic saline (HTS) is a hyperosmotic therapy used in pediatric traumatic brain injury to treat increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. It also promotes plasma volume expansion and cerebral perfusion pressure, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammatory response. We hypothesized that HTS will improve concussive symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: The study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Children, 4 to 7 years of age with a Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 13, were enrolled from a pediatric emergency department following closed-head injury upon meeting Acute Concussion Evaluation criteria with head pain. Patients were randomized to receive 10 mL/kg of HTS or normal saline (NS) over 1 hour. Self-reported pain values were obtained using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale initially, immediately following fluids, and at 2 to 3 days of discharge. The primary outcome measure was change in self-reported pain following fluid administration. Secondary outcome measures were a change in pain and postconcussive symptoms within 2 to 3 days of fluid administration. We used an intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Forty-four patients, ranging from 7 to 16 years of age with comparable characteristics, were enrolled in the study; 23 patients (52%) received HTS, and 21 (48%) received NS. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) identified in the self-reported improvement of pain following fluid administration between the HTS group (mean improvement = 3.5) and the NS group (mean improvement = 1.1). There was a significant difference (P = 0.01) identified in the self-reported improvement of pain at 2 to 3 days after treatment between the HTS group (mean improvement = 4.6) and the NS group (mean improvement = 3.0). We were unable to determine a difference in other postconcussive symptoms following discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Three-percent HTS is more effective than NS in acutely reducing concussion pain in children. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Author Keywords
closed-head injury;  concussion;  concussion therapy;  concussion treatment;  HTS;  hypertonic saline;  mild traumatic brain injury;  mTBI;  pediatric concussion;  pediatric head injury;  pediatric mild traumatic brain injury;  TBI

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Barco, P.P.a , Wallendorf, M.J.b , Snellgrove, C.A.c , Ott, B.R.d , Carr, D.B.e

Predicting road test performance in drivers with stroke

(2014) American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68 (2), pp. 221-229.

a Program in Occupational Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Australia Police Department, Adelaide, SA, Australia
d Department of Neurology, Brown University, Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center, Providence, RI, United States
e Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University, 4488 Forest Park Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63108, United States


OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to develop a brief screening battery to predict the on-road performance of drivers who had experienced a stroke. METHOD. We examined 72 people with stroke referred by community physicians to an academic rehabilitation center. The outcome variable was pass or fail on the modified Washington University Road Test. Predictor measures were tests of visual, motor, and cognitive functioning. RESULTS. The best predictive model for failure on the road test included Trail Making Test Part A and the Snellgrove Maze Task. CONCLUSION. A screening battery that can be performed in less than 5 min was able to assist in the prediction of road test performance in a sample of drivers with stroke. A probability of failure calculator may be useful for clinicians in their decision to refer clients with stroke for a comprehensive driving evaluation.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Pagliaccio, D.a , Luby, J.L.b , Bogdan, R.a c , Agrawal, A.b , Gaffrey, M.S.b , Belden, A.C.b , Botteron, K.N.b d , Harms, M.P.b , Barch, D.M.a b c d

Stress-system genes and life stress predict cortisol levels and amygdala and hippocampal volumes in children

(2014) Neuropsychopharmacology, 39 (5), pp. 1245-1253.

a Program in Neuroscience, Washington University in St Louis, Campus Box 1125, One Brookings Drive, St Louis, MO 63130, United States
b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Psychology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Radiology, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, United States


Depression has been linked to increased cortisol reactivity and differences in limbic brain volumes, yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations are unclear. One main hypothesis is that stress causes these effects. This is supported by animal studies showing that chronic stress or glucocorticoid administration can lead to alterations in hippocampal and amygdala structures. Relatedly, life stress is cited as one of the major risk factors for depression and candidate gene studies have related variation in stress-system genes to increased prevalence and severity of depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that genetic profile scores combining variance across 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms from four stress-system genes (CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) and early life stress would predict increases in cortisol levels during laboratory stressors in 120 preschool-age children (3-5 years old), as well as hippocampal and amygdala volumes assessed with MRI in these same children at school age (7-12 years old). We found that stress-system genetic profile scores positively predicted cortisol levels while the number of stressful/traumatic life events experienced by 3-5 years old negatively predicted cortisol levels. The interaction of genetic profile scores and early life stress predicted left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Cortisol partially mediated the effects of genetic variation and life stress on limbic brain volumes, particularly on left amygdala volume. These results suggest that stress-related genetic and early environmental factors contribute to variation in stress cortisol reactivity and limbic brain volumes in children, phenotypes associated with depression in adulthood. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Author Keywords
amygdala;  childhood;  cortisol;  genetics;  hippocampus;  stress 

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


March 23, 2014

Lal, A.a , Dahiya, S.c , Gonzales, M.d , Hiniker, A.a , Prayson, R.e , Kleinschmidt-Demasters, B.K.f , Perry, A.a b
IgG4 Overexpression Is Rare in Meningiomas with a Prominent Inflammatory Component: A Review of 16 Cases
(2014) Brain Pathology, . Article in Press. 

a Department of Pathology University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA
b Neurological Surgery University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA
c Department of Pathology Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO
d Anatomical Pathology Department Royal Melbourne Hospital Melbourne Australia
e Department of Anatomic Pathology Cleveland Clinic Foundation Cleveland, OH
f Department of Pathology University of Colorado Health Science Center Denver, CO

Meningiomas with prominent inflammation are traditionally classified as "lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma" (LPM). Both inflammatory and neoplastic meningeal proliferations have recently been linked to IgG4 disease, although a potential association with LPM has not been previously explored. Sixteen meningiomas with inflammatory cells outnumbering tumor cells were further characterized by CD3, CD20, CD68 and/or CD163, CD138, kappa, lambda, IgG and IgG4 immunostains. There were 11 female and 4 male patients, ranging from 22 to 78 (median 59) years of age. Tumors consisted of 10 World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, 5 grade II and 1 grade III LPMs. Immunohistochemically, the most numerous cell type was the macrophage in all cases followed by CD3-positive T cells and fewer CD20-positive B cells. Plasma cells ranged from moderate-marked (N=5) to rare (N=7), or absent (N=4). Maximal numbers of IgG4 plasma cells per high power field (HPF) ranged from 0 to 32, with only two cases having counts exceeding 10/HPF. The IgG4/IgG ratio was increased focally in only two cases (30% and 31%). Additionally, plasma cells represented only a minor component in most examples, whereas macrophages predominated, suggesting that "inflammation-rich meningioma" may be a more accurate term. The inflammatory stimulus for most cases remains to be elucidated. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

Author Keywords
IgG4;  Inflammation;  Lymphoplasmacyte rich;  Meningioma

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Bron, A.J.a , Tomlinson, A.b , Foulks, G.N.c , Pepose, J.S.d , Baudouin, C.e , Geerling, G.f , Nichols, K.K.g , Lemp, M.A.h
Rethinking Dry Eye Disease: A Perspective on Clinical Implications
(2014) Ocular Surface, . Article in Press. 

a Professor emeritus - University of Oxford, Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Nuffield Dept of Clinical Neurosciences, UK
b Professor of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland
c Emeritus Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Louisville; Editor-in-Chief, The Ocular Surface, USA
d Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, Director, Pepose Vision Institute, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
e Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, and Vision Institute, University Paris 6, Paris, France
f Professor and Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, Heinrich-Heine-University Moorenstr. 5 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
g FERV Professor (Foundation for Education and Research in Vision), The Ocular Surface Institute, University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas, USA
h Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Georgetown University, Washington DC and George Washington University, Washington DC, USA

Publication of the DEWS report in 2007 established the state of the science of dry eye disease (DED). Since that time, new evidence suggests that a rethinking of traditional concepts of dry eye disease is in order. Specifically, new evidence on the epidemiology of the disease, as well as strategies for diagnosis, have changed the understanding of DED, which is a heterogeneous disease associated with considerable variability in presentation. These advances, along with implications for clinical care, are summarized herein. The most widely used signs of DED are poorly correlated with each other and with symptoms. While symptoms are thought to be characteristic of DED, recent studies have shown that less than 60% of subjects with other objective evidence of DED are symptomatic. Thus the use of symptoms alone in diagnosis will likely result in missing a significant percentage of DED patients, particularly with early/mild disease. This could have considerable impact in patients undergoing cataract or refractive surgery as patients with DED have less than optimal visual results. The most widely used objective signs for diagnosing DED all show greater variability between eyes and in the same eye over time compared with normal subjects. This variability is thought to be a manifestation of tear film instability which results in rapid breakup of the tearfilm between blinks and is an identifier of patients with DED. This feature emphasizes the bilateral nature of the disease in most subjects not suffering from unilateral lid or other unilateral destabilizing surface disorders. Instability of the composition of the tears also occurs in dry eye disease and shows the same variance between eyes. Finally, elevated tear osmolarity has been reported to be a global marker (present in both subtypes of the disease- aqueous-deficient dry eye and evaporative dry eye). Clinically, osmolarity has been shown to be the best single metric for diagnosis of DED and is directly related to increasing severity of disease. Clinical examination and other assessments differentiate which subtype of disease is present. With effective treatment, the tear osmolarity returns to normal, and its variability between eyes and with time disappears. Other promising markers include objective measures of visual deficits, proinflammatory molecular markers and other molecular markers, specific to each disease subtype, and panels of tear proteins. As yet, however, no single protein or panel of markers has been shown to discriminate between the major forms of DED. With the advent of new tests and technology, improved endpoints for clinical trials may be established, which in turn may allow new therapeutic agents to emerge in the foreseeable future. Accurate recognition of disease is now possible and successful management of DED appears to be within our grasp, for a majority of our patients. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
aqueous-deficient dry eye disease;  dry eye disease;  inflammation;  meibomian gland dysfunction;  osmolarity;  point-of-care testing

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Weiner, L.a , Avery-Clark, C.b
Sensate Focus: clarifying the Masters and Johnson's model
(2014) Sexual and Relationship Therapy, . Article in Press. 

a Washington University Brown School, St Louis, MO, USA
b Psychological Associates, Masters and Johnson Institute, Boca Raton, FL, USA

While Masters and Johnson will be remembered for creating Sensate Focus as the foundation of sex therapy, confusion still abounds about its implementation and about the conceptualization of sex as a natural function that underlies it. Sensate Focus and sex as a natural function are clarified and explored. The crucial difference between the intended aim of non-demand touching for one's own interest and the misleading interpretation of non-demand pleasuring of the partner is emphasized. By mindfully being present to sensations in the moment, and refraining from forcing pleasure and arousal, clients can move towards the optimal intimacy they desire. © 2014 © 2014 College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists.

Author Keywords
Masters and Johnson;  Sensate Focus;  sex therapy;  sexual function;  sexual psychology

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Raghavan, R.a , Brown, D.S.a , Allaire, B.T.b , Garfield, L.D.a , Ross, R.E.a , Snowden, L.R.c
Racial/ethnic differences in Medicaid expenditures on psychotropic medications among maltreated children
(2014) Child Abuse and Neglect, . Article in Press. 

a Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1196, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
b RTI International, PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
c University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, 50 University Hall, #7360, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA

This study quantifies racial/ethnic differences in Medicaid expenditures on psychotropic drugs among a national sample of children with suspected maltreatment. We linked 4,445 child participants in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) - consisting of children investigated for suspected abuse and neglect - to their Medicaid claims obtained from 36 states. We used propensity score matching to construct a comparison group of children without known child welfare involvement, and estimated two-part generalized linear models to examine differences in annual psychotropic drug expenditures per child between children of different races/ethnicities. When compared to a matched sample of children, African American and Latino children incur $292 and $144 less expenditures on psychotropic drugs, respectively, than white children. Among NSCAW children alone, African American children display $614 less spending on psychotropic drugs when compared to white children. Racial/ethnic differences in expenditures on psychotropic drugs occur among all children on Medicaid, but the differences are especially pronounced among African American children in contact with the child welfare system. These findings demonstrate that policymakers will need to pay special attention to the needs of children of color as Medicaid expansions proceed nationwide. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Author Keywords
Disparities;  Ethnicity;  Expenditures;  Medicaid;  Psychotropic drugs;  Race

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Waldron, M.a b , Vaughan, E.L.a , Bucholz, K.K.b , Lynskey, M.T.c , Sartor, C.E.b d , Duncan, A.E.b e , Madden, P.A.F.b , Heath, A.C.b
Risks for early substance involvement associated with parental alcoholism and parental separation in an adolescent female cohort
(2014) Drug and Alcohol Dependence, . Article in Press. 

a School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
b Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA
c Addictions Department, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK
d Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
e George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Background: We examined timing of substance involvement as a joint function of parental history of alcoholism and parental separation during childhood. Method: Data were drawn from a large cohort of female like-sex twins [n = 613 African Ancestry (AA), n = 3550 European or other ancestry (EA)]. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use of alcohol, first alcohol intoxication, first use and regular use of cigarettes, and first use of cannabis and other illicit drugs from dummy variables coding for parental alcoholism and parental separation. Propensity score analysis was also conducted comparing intact and separated families by predicted probability of parental separation. Results: In EA families, increased risk of substance involvement was found in both alcoholic and separated families, particularly through ages 10 or 14 years, with risk to offspring from alcoholic separated families further increased. In AA families, associations with parental alcoholism and parental separation were weak and with few exceptions statistically nonsignificant. While propensity score findings confirmed unique risks observed in EA families, intact and separated AA families were poorly matched on risk-factors presumed to predate parental separation, especially parental alcoholism, requiring cautious interpretation of AA survival-analytic findings. Conclusion: For offspring of European ancestry, parental separation predicts early substance involvement that is not explained by parental alcoholism nor associated family background characteristics. Additional research is needed to better characterize risks associated with parental separation in African American families. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Adolescent substance use;  Parental alcoholism;  Parental separation or divorce

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Melin, A.D.a b , Young, H.C.c , Mosdossy, K.N.d , Fedigan, L.M.d
Seasonality, extractive foraging and the evolution of primate sensorimotor intelligence
(2014) Journal of Human Evolution, . Article in Press. 

a Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, 6047 Silsby Hall, Hanover, NH, USA
b Department of Anthropology, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
c Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
d Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada

The parallel evolution of increased sensorimotor intelligence in humans and capuchins has been linked to the cognitive and manual demands of seasonal extractive faunivory. This hypothesis is attractive on theoretical grounds, but it has eluded widespread acceptance due to lack of empirical data. For instance, the effects of seasonality on the extractive foraging behaviors of capuchins are largely unknown. Here we report foraging observations on four groups of wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a seasonally dry tropical forest. We also measured intra-annual variation in temperature, rainfall, and food abundance. We found that the exploitation of embedded or mechanically protected invertebrates was concentrated during periods of fruit scarcity. Such a pattern suggests that embedded insects are best characterized as a fallback food for capuchins. We discuss the implications of seasonal extractive faunivory for the evolution of sensorimotor intelligence (SMI) in capuchins and hominins and suggest that the suite of features associated with SMI, including increased manual dexterity, tool use, and innovative problem solving are cognitive adaptations among frugivores that fall back seasonally on extractable foods. The selective pressures acting on SMI are predicted to be strongest among primates living in the most seasonal environments. This model is proffered to explain the differences in tool use between capuchin lineages, and SMI as an adaptation to extractive foraging is suggested to play an important role in hominin evolution. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Capuchin;  Embedded foods;  Fallback food;  Faunivory;  Invertebrate

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Weidler, B.J.a b , Abrams, R.A.a
Decomposing the action effect: How simple actions affect subsequent perception
(2014) Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, pp. 1-11. Article in Press. 

a Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Psychology, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States

Simple actions toward an object cause people to allocate attention preferentially toward properties of that object in subsequent unrelated tasks. We show here that it is not necessary to process or attend to any properties of the object in order to obtain the effect: Even when participants knew prior to the object's onset that they would be acting, the effects of the object remained. Furthermore, the effect remained when the action had no visible effect on the object. In addition, we examined the extent to which the effect may be due to goal updating (which is necessary only on trials that require action) and found that the effect remained even when goal updating was not necessary. The results reveal that a simple action does, indeed, affect perception and have implications for understanding vision as individuals make actions in naturally occurring behavior. © 2014 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Author Keywords
Perception and action;  Visual search

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Strassmann, J.E., Queller, D.C.
Privatization and property in biology
(2014) Animal Behaviour, . Article in Press. 

Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, U.S.A.

Organisms evolve to control, preserve, protect and invest in their own bodies. When they do likewise with external resources they privatize those resources and convert them into their own property. Property is a neglected topic in biology, although examples include territories, domiciles and nest structures, food caching, mate guarding, and the resources and partners in mutualisms. Property is important because it represents a solution to the tragedy of the commons; to the extent that an individual exerts long-term control of its property, it can use it prudently, and even invest in it. Resources most worth privatizing are often high in value. To be useful to their owner in the future, they are typically durable and defensible. This may explain why property is relatively rare in animals compared to humans. The lack of institutional property rights in animals also contributes to their rarity, although owner-intruder conventions may represent a simple form of property rights. Resources are often privatized by force or threat of force, but privatization can also be achieved by hiding, by constructing barriers, and by carrying or incorporating the property. Social organisms often have property for two reasons. First, the returns on savings and investments can accrue to relatives, including descendants. Second, social groups can divide tasks among members, so they can simultaneously guard property and forage, for example. Privatization enhances the likelihood that the benefits of cooperation will go to relatives, thus facilitating the evolution of cooperation as in Hamilton's rule or kin selection. Mutualisms often involve exchange of property and privatization of relationships. Privatization ensures the stability of such cooperation. The major transitions in evolution, both fraternal and egalitarian, generally involve the formation of private clubs with something analogous to the nonrivalrous club goods of economics. © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Author Keywords
evolution;  investment;  kin selection;  ownership;  privatization;  property;  sociality;  territoriality

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Treiman, R.a , Gordon, J.a , Boada, R.b , Peterson, R.L.c , Pennington, B.F.c
Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading
(2014) Scientific Studies of Reading, . Article in Press. 

a Washington University in St. Louis
b University of Colorado School of Medicine
c University of Denver

Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as <d> and <J>, than forms that face right, such as <b> and <C>. We propose that this asymmetry reflects statistical learning: Children implicitly learn that the right-facing pattern is more typical of Latin letters. The degree of asymmetry that a child showed was not related to the child's reading skill at Time 2, 2 years later. Although children who went on to become poorer readers made more errors in the letter writing task than children who went on to become better readers, they were no more likely to make reversal errors. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Scientific Study of Reading.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Kaphingst, K.A.a , Goodman, M.S.a , MacMillan, W.D.a , Carpenter, C.R.b , Griffey, R.T.b
Effect of cognitive dysfunction on the relationship between age and health literacy
(2014) Patient Education and Counseling, . Article in Press. 

a Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA
b Division of Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA

Objective: Age is generally an inverse predictor of health literacy. However, the role of cognitive dysfunction among older adults in this relationship is not understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 446 adult patients in a large urban academic level one trauma center, assessing health literacy and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Removing older patients (60 years of age and older) who screened positive for cognitive dysfunction attenuated the relationship between age and health literacy (r = -0.16, p = 0.001 vs. r = -0.35, p < 0.0001). Older patients screening positive for cognitive dysfunction had significantly lower health literacy than older patients screening negative and patients less than 60 years; health literacy scores did not generally differ significantly between the latter groups. Conclusion: Much of the relationship between age and health literacy was driven by cognitive dysfunction among a subset of older adults. Practice implications: Our findings suggest that older patients with cognitive dysfunction have the greatest need for health literacy interventions. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Age;  Cognitive dysfunction;  Cognitive status;  Health literacy;  Patient intervention

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Speca, D.J.a , Ogata, G.a , Mandikian, D.a , Bishop, H.I.a , Wiler, S.W.a , Eum, K.b , Jürgen Wenzel, H.c , Doisy, E.T.c , Matt, L.d , Campi, K.L.e , Golub, M.S.f , Nerbonne, J.M.g , Hell, J.W.d , Trainor, B.C.e , Sack, J.T.b , Schwartzkroin, P.A.c , Trimmer, J.S.a b
Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability
(2014) Genes, Brain and Behavior, . Article in Press. 

a Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, College of Biological Sciences
b Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology
c Department of Neurological Surgery
d Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine
e Department of Psychology
f Department of Environmental Toxicology University of California Davis, CA USA
g Department of Developmental Biology Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO USA

The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and behavioral deficits in mutant (Kv2.1-/-) mice lacking this channel. Kv2.1-/- mice have grossly normal characteristics. No impairment in vision or motor coordination was apparent, although Kv2.1-/- mice exhibit reduced body weight. The anatomic structure and expression of related Kv channels in the brains of Kv2.1-/- mice appear unchanged. Delayed rectifier potassium current is diminished in hippocampal neurons cultured from Kv2.1-/- animals. Field recordings from hippocampal slices of Kv2.1-/- mice reveal hyperexcitability in response to the convulsant bicuculline, and epileptiform activity in response to stimulation. In Kv2.1-/- mice, long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse is decreased. Kv2.1-/- mice are strikingly hyperactive, and exhibit defects in spatial learning, failing to improve performance in a Morris Water Maze task. Kv2.1-/- mice are hypersensitive to the effects of the convulsants flurothyl and pilocarpine, consistent with a role for Kv2.1 as a conditional suppressor of neuronal activity. Although not prone to spontaneous seizures, Kv2.1-/- mice exhibit accelerated seizure progression. Together, these findings suggest homeostatic suppression of elevated neuronal activity by Kv2.1 plays a central role in regulating neuronal network function. © 2014 John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

Author Keywords
Hyperactivity;  Kcnb1;  Kcnb1tm1Dgen;  Long-term potentiation;  Seizure

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Hudson, D.L., Purnell, J.Q., Duncan, A.E., Baker, E.
Subjective Religiosity, Church Attendance, and Depression in the National Survey of American Life
(2014) Journal of Religion and Health, pp. 1-14. Article in Press. 

George Warren Brown School of Social Work and Institute for Public Health, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive Campus, Saint Louis, 63130, United States

Studies have consistently indicated that blacks report lower rates of depression than whites. This study examined the association between religion and depression and whether religion explained lower rates of depression among blacks compared to whites. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life, a multi-ethnic sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,082). African Americans and Caribbean Blacks reported higher mean levels of subjective religiosity than whites, but there were no significant differences in levels of church attendance. African Americans (OR 0.54; CI 0.45-0.65) and Caribbean Blacks (OR 0.66; CI 0.48-0.91) reported significantly lower odds of depression than whites. Differences in subjective religiosity and church attendance did not account for the association between major depression and African American and Caribbean Black race/ethnicity relative to whites. More research is needed to examine whether there are other factors that could protect against the development of depression. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Author Keywords
Church attendance;  Depression;  Race/ethnicity;  Religiosity

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Bailey, H.R., Dunlosky, J., Hertzog, C.
Does Strategy Training Reduce Age-Related Deficits in Working Memory?
(2014) Gerontology, . Article in Press. 

Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo., USA

Background: Older adults typically perform worse on measures of working memory (WM) than do young adults; however, age-related differences in WM performance might be reduced if older adults use effective encoding strategies. Objective: The purpose of the current experiment was to evaluate WM performance after training individuals to use effective encoding strategies. Methods: Participants in the training group (older adults: n = 39; young adults: n = 41) were taught about various verbal encoding strategies and their differential effectiveness and were trained to use interactive imagery and sentence generation on a list-learning task. Participants in the control group (older: n = 37; young: n = 38) completed an equally engaging filler task. All participants completed a pre- and post-training reading span task, which included self-reported strategy use, as well as two transfer tasks that differed in the affordance to use the trained strategies - a paired-associate recall task and the self-ordered pointing task. Results: Both young and older adults were able to use the target strategies on the WM task and showed gains in WM performance after training. The age-related WM deficit was not greatly affected, however, and the training gains did not transfer to the other cognitive tasks. In fact, participants attempted to adapt the trained strategies for a paired-associate recall task, but the increased strategy use did not benefit their performance. Conclusions: Strategy training can boost WM performance, and its benefits appear to arise from strategy-specific effects and not from domain-general gains in cognitive ability. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

Ghogomu, N., Umansky, A., Lieu, J.E.
Epidemiology of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with universal newborn hearing screening.
(2014) The Laryngoscope, 124 (1), pp. 295-300. 

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.

Compare the epidemiology of pediatric unilateral sensorineural hearing loss before and after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening in Missouri. Inception cohort. Charts of 134 children born between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007, diagnosed with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss at a single institution in Missouri were reviewed to determine the effects of universal newborn hearing screening on age of detection and etiology of hearing loss. Mean age of detection declined from 4.4 (standard deviation [SD] 1.8) to 2.6 (SD 2.6) years of age, whereas the rate of detection by 6 months of age increased from 3% to 42%. The majority (58%) of cases had normal hearing at birth. The most common etiological category was unknown (41%) before screening and congenital (45%) after screening. The use of magnetic resonance imaging has increased by 21% (2-fold), whereas use of computed tomography has declined by 8% since 2002. Yields of connexin, Pendred, electrocardiogram, and syphilis testing were 0/48 and 2/31 before and after screening, respectively. Implementation of universal newborn hearing screening in Missouri is associated with a decrease in age of detection of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The majority of cases are either not present or not detectable at birth. The combination of hearing status at birth and imaging findings suggests that the majority of cases are congenital rather than of unknown etiology. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


March 17, 2014

Tripodi, S.J.a , Onifade, E.a , Pettus-Davis, C.b 

Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: The predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support

(2014) International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58 (4), pp. 394-411. 

a Florida State University, Tallahassee, United States

b Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States

Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. © 2013 The Author(s).

Author Keywords
childhood victimization;  neglect;  suicidality;  support;  women prisoners

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Rosenström, T.a d , Jylhä, P.b e , Robert Cloninger, C.c , Hintsanen, M.a h , Elovainio, M.a d , Mantere, O.b f g , Pulkki-Råback, L.a , Riihimäki, K.b , Vuorilehto, M.b f , Keltikangas-Järvinen, L.a , Isometsä, E.b f g 

Temperament and character traits predict future burden of depression

(2014) Journal of Affective Disorders, 158, pp. 139-147. 

a IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

b Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute of Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

c Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

d National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

e Department of Psychiatry, Jorvi Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Espoo, Finland

f Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

g Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

h Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Background Personality traits are associated with depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Evidence for their value in predicting accumulation of future dysphoric episodes or clinical depression in long-term follow-up is limited, however. Methods Within a 15-year longitudinal study of a general-population cohort (N=751), depressive symptoms were measured at four time points using Beck's Depression Inventory. In addition, 93 primary care patients with DSM-IV depressive disorders and 151 with bipolar disorder, diagnosed with SCID-I/P interviews, were followed for five and 1.5 years with life-chart methodology, respectively. Generalized linear regression models were used to predict future number of dysphoric episodes and total duration of major depressive episodes. Baseline personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results In the general-population sample, one s.d. lower Self-directedness predicted 7.6-fold number of future dysphoric episodes; for comparison, one s.d. higher baseline depressive symptoms increased the episode rate 4.5-fold. High Harm-avoidance and low Cooperativeness also implied elevated dysphoria rates. Generally, personality traits were poor predictors of depression for specific time points, and in clinical populations. Low Persistence predicted 7.5% of the variance in the future accumulated depression in bipolar patients, however. Limitations Degree of recall bias in life charts, limitations of statistical power in the clinical samples, and 21-79% sample attrition (corrective imputations were performed). Conclusion TCI predicts future burden of dysphoric episodes in the general population, but is a weak predictor of depression outcome in heterogeneous clinical samples. Measures of personality appear more useful in detecting risk for depression than in clinical prediction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Author Keywords
Bipolar disorder;  Longitudinal data;  Major depressive disorder;  Mood disorders;  Personality;  Prevention

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

Hung, Y.H.a , Faux, N.G.a , Killilea, D.W.b , Yanjanin, N.c , Firnkes, S.d , Volitakis, I.a , Ganio, G.a , Walterfang, M.e , Hastings, C.f , Porter, F.D.c , Ory, D.S.d , Bush, A.I.a 

Altered transition metal homeostasis in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1

(2014) Metallomics, 6 (3), pp. 542-553. 

a Oxidation Biology Unit, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia

b Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609, United States

c Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States

d Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

e Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia

f Children's Hospital, Research Center, Oakland, CA 94609, United States

The loss of NPC1 protein function is the predominant cause of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NP-C1), a systemic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late-endosomal/lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids. Limited evidence from post-mortem human tissues, an Npc1-/- mouse model, and cell culture studies also suggest failure of metal homeostasis in NP-C1. To investigate these findings, we performed a comprehensive transition metal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and tissue samples from human NP-C1 patients and an Npc1-/- mouse model. NPC1 deficiency in the Npc1-/- mouse model resulted in a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis in the plasma and key organs (brain, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and kidneys). Analysis of human patient CSF, plasma and post-mortem brain tissues also indicated disrupted metal homeostasis. There was a disparity in the direction of metal changes between the human and the Npc1-/- mouse samples, which may reflect species-specific metal metabolism. Nevertheless, common to both species is brain zinc accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor miglustat, the only drug shown in a controlled clinical trial to have some efficacy for NP-C1, did not correct the alterations in CSF and plasma transition metal and ceruloplasmin (CP) metabolism in NP-C1 patients. These findings highlight the importance of NPC1 function in metal homeostasis, and indicate that metal-targeting therapy may be of value as a treatment for NP-C. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

 Jia, L.a , Chisari, M.b c e , Maktabi, M.H.a , Sobieski, C.b , Zhou, H.a , Konopko, A.M.d , Martin, B.R.d , Mennerick, S.J.b , Blumer, K.J.a 

A mechanism regulating g protein-coupled receptor signaling that requires cycles of protein palmitoylation and depalmitoylation

(2014) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289 (9), pp. 6249-6257. 

a Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

c Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

d Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States

e Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania 95125, Italy

Reversible attachment and removal of palmitate or other long-chain fatty acids on proteins has been hypothesized, like phosphorylation, to control diverse biological processes. Indeed, palmitate turnover regulates Ras trafficking and signaling. Beyond this example, however, the functions of palmitate turnover on specific proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a mechanism regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling in neuronal cells requires palmitate turnover. We used hexadecyl fluorophosphonate or palmostatin B to inhibit enzymes in the serine hydrolase family that depalmitoylate proteins, and we studied R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-binding protein (R7BP), a palmitoylated allosteric modulator of R7 RGS proteins that accelerate deactivation of Gi/o class G proteins. Depalmitoylation inhibition caused R7BP to redistribute from the plasma membrane to endomembrane compartments, dissociated R7BP-bound R7 RGS complexes from Gi/o-gated G protein-regulated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels and delayed GIRK channel closure. In contrast, targeting R7BP to the plasma membrane with a polybasic domain and an irreversibly attached lipid instead of palmitate rendered GIRK channel closure insensitive to depalmitoylation inhibitors. Palmitate turnover therefore is required for localizing R7BP to the plasma membrane and facilitating Gi/o deactivation by R7 RGS proteins on GIRK channels. Our findings broaden the scope of biological processes regulated by palmitate turnover on specific target proteins. Inhibiting R7BP depalmitoylation may provide a means of enhancing GIRK activity in neurological disorders. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Kaviani, H.a , Mirbaha, H.b , Pournaseh, M.c , Sagan, O.d 

Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

(2014) Cognitive Processing, 15 (1), pp. 77-84. 

a Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of Bedfordshire Park Square, Luton LU1 3JU, United Kingdom

b Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

c Family Service Toronto, 540 Finch Ave. West, Toronto, ON M2R 1N7, Canada

d Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln LN1 3DY, United Kingdom

The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper. © 2013 Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Author Keywords
Cognition;  Intelligence;  Music;  Preschool children;  Short-term memory

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus