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WashU weekly Neuroscience publications

“Pioglitazone improves working memory performance when administered in chronic TBI” (2019) Neurobiology of Disease

Pioglitazone improves working memory performance when administered in chronic TBI
(2019) Neurobiology of Disease, 132, art. no. 104611, . 

McGuire, J.L.a , Correll, E.A.a , Lowery, A.C.b , Rhame, K.c , Anwar, F.N.d , McCullumsmith, R.E.e , Ngwenya, L.B.a f

a Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States
b Undergraduate Honors Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States
c College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States
d Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, United States
f Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Cincinnati, United States

Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Even in comparatively mild injuries, cognitive and behavioral symptoms can persist for years, and there are currently no established strategies for mitigating symptoms in chronic injury. A key feature of TBI-induced damage in acute and chronic injury is disruption of metabolic pathways. As neurotransmission, and therefore cognition, are highly dependent on the supply of energy, we hypothesized that modulating metabolic activity could help restore behavioral performance even when treatment was initiated weeks after TBI. We treated rats with pioglitazone, a FDA-approved drug for diabetes, beginning 46 days after lateral fluid percussion injury and tested working memory performance in the radial arm maze (RAM) after 14 days of treatment. Pioglitazone treated TBI rats performed significantly better in the RAM test than untreated TBI rats, and similarly to control animals. While hexokinase activity in hippocampus was increased by pioglitazone treatment, there was no upregulation of either the neuronal glucose transporter or hexokinase enzyme expression. Expression of glial markers GFAP and Iba-1 were also not influenced by pioglitazone treatment. These studies suggest that targeting brain metabolism, in particular hippocampal metabolism, may be effective in alleviating cognitive symptoms in chronic TBI. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Chronic traumatic brain injury;  Glycolysis;  Hexokinase;  Lateral fluid percussion;  Pioglitazone;  Rat

Document Type: Review
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study” (2019) NeuroImage

Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study
(2019) NeuroImage, 202, art. no. 116091, . 

Hagler, D.J., Jr.a , Hatton, S.a , Cornejo, M.D.a , Makowski, C.b , Fair, D.A.c , Dick, A.S.d , Sutherland, M.T.d , Casey, B.J.e , Barch, D.M.f , Harms, M.P.f , Watts, R.e , Bjork, J.M.g , Garavan, H.P.h , Hilmer, L.a , Pung, C.J.a , Sicat, C.S.a , Kuperman, J.a , Bartsch, H.a , Xue, F.a , Heitzeg, M.M.i , Laird, A.R.d , Trinh, T.T.a , Gonzalez, R.d , Tapert, S.F.a , Riedel, M.C.d , Squeglia, L.M.j , Hyde, L.W.i , Rosenberg, M.D.e , Earl, E.A.c , Howlett, K.D.k , Baker, F.C.l , Soules, M.i , Diaz, J.a , de Leon, O.R.a , Thompson, W.K.a , Neale, M.C.g , Herting, M.m n , Sowell, E.R.n , Alvarez, R.P.o , Hawes, S.W.d , Sanchez, M.d , Bodurka, J.p , Breslin, F.J.p , Morris, A.S.p , Paulus, M.P.p , Simmons, W.K.p , Polimeni, J.R.q r , van der Kouwe, A.q r , Nencka, A.S.s , Gray, K.M.j , Pierpaoli, C.t , Matochik, J.A.u , Noronha, A.u , Aklin, W.M.k , Conway, K.k , Glantz, M.k , Hoffman, E.k , Little, R.k , Lopez, M.k , Pariyadath, V.k , Weiss, S.R.k , Wolff-Hughes, D.L.v , DelCarmen-Wiggins, R.w , Feldstein Ewing, S.W.c , Miranda-Dominguez, O.c , Nagel, B.J.c , Perrone, A.J.c , Sturgeon, D.T.c , Goldstone, A.l , Pfefferbaum, A.l , Pohl, K.M.l , Prouty, D.l , Uban, K.x , Bookheimer, S.Y.y , Dapretto, M.y , Galvan, A.y , Bagot, K.a , Giedd, J.a , Infante, M.A.a , Jacobus, J.a , Patrick, K.a , Shilling, P.D.a , Desikan, R.z , Li, Y.z , Sugrue, L.z , Banich, M.T.aa , Friedman, N.aa , Hewitt, J.K.aa , Hopfer, C.aa , Sakai, J.aa , Tanabe, J.aa , Cottler, L.B.ab , Nixon, S.J.ab , Chang, L.ac , Cloak, C.ac , Ernst, T.ac , Reeves, G.ac , Kennedy, D.N.ad , Heeringa, S.i , Peltier, S.i , Schulenberg, J.i , Sripada, C.i , Zucker, R.A.i , Iacono, W.G.ae , Luciana, M.ae , Calabro, F.J.af , Clark, D.B.af , Lewis, D.A.af , Luna, B.af , Schirda, C.af , Brima, T.ag , Foxe, J.J.ag , Freedman, E.G.ag , Mruzek, D.W.ag , Mason, M.J.ah , Huber, R.ai , McGlade, E.ai , Prescot, A.ai , Renshaw, P.F.ai , Yurgelun-Todd, D.A.ai , Allgaier, N.A.h , Dumas, J.A.h , Ivanova, M.h , Potter, A.h , Florsheim, P.aj , Larson, C.aj , Lisdahl, K.aj , Charness, M.E.r ak al , Fuemmeler, B.g , Hettema, J.M.g , Maes, H.H.g , Steinberg, J.g , Anokhin, A.P.f , Glaser, P.f , Heath, A.C.f , Madden, P.A.f , Baskin-Sommers, A.e , Constable, R.T.e , Grant, S.J.k , Dowling, G.J.k , Brown, S.A.a , Jernigan, T.L.a , Dale, A.M.a

a University of California, San Diego, United States
b McGill University, Montreal, Canada
c Oregon Health & Science University, United States
d Florida International University, United States
e Yale University, United States
f Washington University, St. Louis, United States
g Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
h University of Vermont, United States
i University of Michigan, United States
j Medical University of South Carolina, United States
k National Institute on Drug Abuse, United States
l SRI International, United States
m University of Southern California, United States
n Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, United States
o Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, United States
p Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, United States
q Massachusetts General Hospital, United States
r Harvard Medical School, United States
s Medical College of Wisconsin, United States
t National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, United States
u National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, United States
v Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, United States
w Office of Research on Women’s Health, United States
x University of California, Irvine, United States
y University of California, Los Angeles, United States
z University of California, San Francisco, United States
aa University of Colorado, United States
ab University of Florida, United States
ac University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States
ad University of Massachusetts, United States
ae University of Minnesota, United States
af University of Pittsburgh, United States
ag University of Rochester, United States
ah University of Tennessee, United States
ai University of Utah, United States
aj University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, United States
ak VA Boston Healthcare System, United States
al Boston University School of Medicine, United States

Abstract
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data is a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by ABCD. Processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI. This manuscript serves as a methodological reference for users of publicly shared neuroimaging data from the ABCD Study. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
ABCD;  Adolescent;  Data sharing;  Magnetic resonance imaging;  Processing pipeline

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Sex differences in serial pattern learning in mice” (2019) Behavioural Processes

Sex differences in serial pattern learning in mice
(2019) Behavioural Processes, 168, art. no. 103958, . 

Kundey, S.M.A.a , Bajracharya, A.b , Boettger-Tong, H.c , Fountain, S.B.d , Rowan, J.D.c

a Hood College, Department of Psychology, 401 Rosemont Avenue, Tatem 324, Frederick, MD 21701, United States
b Washington University in Saint Louis, United States
c Wesleyan College, United States
d Kent State University, United States

Abstract
Numerous investigators have examined the hypothesis that males and females learn or perform differentially on various tasks. However, many of the behavioural investigations with nonhuman animals (e.g., rats) have used paradigms that do not permit the exploration of complex learning and memory between the sexes. To this end, we explored the ability of male versus female mice to learn three different patterns in succession in three separate experiments: single alternation (e.g., right, left, right, left), double alternation (e.g., right, right, left, left), and runs (e.g., 123, 234, 345, 456, 567, 678, 781, 812, where digits represent locations within a circular array in the counterclockwise direction). We hypothesized that sex differences, if they existed, would be most likely to appear as the pattern to be learned became more complex (required more rules to capture how elements relate to one another). The results indicated that mice can learn all three pattern types, but learning was more difficult as pattern complexity increased. Males learned the runs pattern significantly more quickly than females did; no significant differences were found between males and females for acquisition of the single-alternation or double-alternation patterns. These results suggest that sex differences in serial pattern learning within rodents are not unique to rats and are more likely to be seen during acquisition of more complex patterns. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

Author Keywords
Double alternation;  Mice;  Serial pattern learning;  Sex differences;  Single alternation

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“The urge to blink in Tourette syndrome” (2019) Cortex

The urge to blink in Tourette syndrome
(2019) Cortex, 120, pp. 556-566. 

Botteron, H.E.a , Richards, C.A.b , Nishino, T.b , Ueda, K.b , Acevedo, H.K.b , Koller, J.M.b , Black, K.J.b

a Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
Functional neuroimaging studies have attempted to explore brain activity that occurs with tic occurrence in subjects with Tourette syndrome (TS). However, they are limited by the difficulty of disambiguating brain activity required to perform a tic, or activity caused by the tic, from brain activity that generates a tic. Inhibiting ticcing following the urge to tic is important to patients’ experience of tics and we hypothesize that inhibition of a compelling motor response to a natural urge will differ in TS subjects compared to controls. This study examines the urge to blink, which shares many similarities to premonitory urges to tic. Previous neuroimaging studies with the same hypothesis have used a one-size-fits-all approach to extract brain signal putatively linked to the urge to blink. We aimed to create a subject-specific and blink-timing-specific pathophysiological model, derived from out-of-scanner blink suppression trials, to eventually better interpret blink suppression fMRI data. Eye closure and continuously self-reported discomfort were reported during five blink suppression trials in 30 adult volunteers, 15 with a chronic tic disorder. For each subject, data from four of the trials were used with an empirical mathematical model to predict discomfort from eye closure observed during the remaining trial. The blink timing model of discomfort during blink suppression predicted observed discomfort much better than previously applied models. Combining this approach with observed eye closure during fMRI blink suppression trials should therefore extract brain signal more tightly linked to the urge to blink. The simple mean of time-discomfort curves from each subject’s other trials also outperformed older models. The TS group blinked more than twice as often during the blink suppression block, and reported higher baseline discomfort, smaller excursion from baseline to peak discomfort during the blink suppression block, and slower return of discomfort to baseline during the recovery block. © 2019 The Author(s)

Author Keywords
Blinking;  Inhibition (psychology);  Tic disorders;  Tourette syndrome;  Urge

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“Large-Scale Population-Based Assessment of Psychiatric Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder” (2019) Biological Psychiatry

Large-Scale Population-Based Assessment of Psychiatric Comorbidities in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
(2019) Biological Psychiatry, 86 (8), pp. e25-e27. 

Turner, T.N.

Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Document Type: Note
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Mental Singing Reduces Gait Variability More Than Music Listening for Healthy Older Adults and People With Parkinson Disease” (2019) Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy : JNPT

Mental Singing Reduces Gait Variability More Than Music Listening for Healthy Older Adults and People With Parkinson Disease
(2019) Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy : JNPT, 43 (4), pp. 204-211. 

Harrison, E.C., Horin, A.P., Earhart, G.M.

Departments of Neurology (E.C.H., G.M.E.) and Neuroscience (G.M.E.) and Program in Physical Therapy (A.P.H.), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previously, we showed that internal cues (such as singing) produce similar motor benefits as external cues (such as listening to music) for people with Parkinson disease (PD). This study takes that research further by exploring how singing-either aloud or mentally-at different tempos can ameliorate gait, and it offers insight into how internal cueing techniques may enhance motor performance for older adults and people with PD. METHODS: Sixty participants aged 50 years and older (30 female) were recruited; 30 had PD and 30 were healthy age-matched controls. Participants completed walking trials involving internal and external cueing techniques at 90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred cadence. The effects of different cue types and rates were assessed in a repeated-measures cross-sectional study by comparing gait characteristics (velocity, cadence, stride length) and variabilities (coefficients of variation of stride length, stride time, single support time). RESULTS: All participants modified their cadence and stride length during cued conditions, resulting in changes in gait velocity closely reflecting expected changes based upon cue rate. External cues resulted in increased gait variability, whereas internal cues decreased gait variability relative to uncued walking. Variability decreases were more substantial during mental singing at tempos at or above preferred cadence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Matching movement to one’s own voice improves gait characteristics while reducing gait variability for older adults and people with PD. Optimizing the use of internal cues to facilitate movement is an important step toward more effectively meeting the needs of people with gait disorders related to aging or neurological disease.Video Abstract available for more insights from authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A286).

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Belief, Confidence, and Motivation to Use the Paretic Upper Limb in Daily Life Over the First 24 Weeks After Stroke” (2019) Journal of Nneurologic Physical Therapy

Belief, Confidence, and Motivation to Use the Paretic Upper Limb in Daily Life Over the First 24 Weeks After Stroke
(2019) Journal of Nneurologic Physical Therapy : JNPT, 43 (4), pp. 197-203. 

Waddell, K.J., Tabak, R.G., Strube, M.J., Haire-Joshu, D., Lang, C.E.

Program in Physical Therapy (K.J.W., Brown School (R.G.T., Psychological and Brain Sciences (M.JS.), Program in Occupational Therapy and Department of Neurology (C.E.L.), Washington University, St Louis, MO

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The recovery patterns of upper limb (UL) impairment after stroke are established. Psychosocial factors such as belief that paretic UL recovery is possible, confidence, and motivation to use the paretic UL in everyday tasks are unexplored early after stroke. The purpose of this exploratory study was to characterize belief, confidence, and motivation to use the paretic UL in daily life, and self-perceived barriers to UL recovery over the first 24 weeks after stroke. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study (N = 30) with 8 assessment sessions over the first 24 weeks after stroke. Belief, confidence, and motivation to use the paretic UL and self-perceived barriers were quantified via survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Change in the number of self-perceived barriers between weeks 2 and 24 was tested using a paired-samples t test. The relationship between UL capacity, depressive symptomatology, cognition, and each psychosocial factor was examined using Spearman rank-order correlation analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two participants completed all study assessments. Belief, confidence, and motivation were high across the 24 weeks, with little variation. There was no difference between the average number of barriers from weeks 2 to 24. There was no relationship between the clinical measures and psychosocial factors at week 2, 12, or 24. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: High levels of belief, confidence, and motivation appear consistent over the first 6 months after stroke. The lack of correlations between psychosocial factors and clinical measures suggests belief, confidence, and motivation may not be vulnerable to functional status early after stroke.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see the Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1 available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A283).

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Uncovering covert stroke in surgical patients” (2019) The Lancet

Uncovering covert stroke in surgical patients
(2019) The Lancet, 394 (10203), pp. 982-984. 

Vlisides, P.E.a , Avidan, M.S.b , Mashour, G.A.a

a Department of Anesthesiology and Center for Consciousness Science, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States
b Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States

Document Type: Note
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Screening for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: a Review of the Recent Literature” (2019) Current Psychiatry Reports

Screening for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: a Review of the Recent Literature
(2019) Current Psychiatry Reports, 21 (10), p. 101. 

Fitzsimmons-Craft, E.E.a , Karam, A.M.b , Monterubio, G.E.b , Taylor, C.B.c d , Wilfley, D.E.b

a Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Mailstop 8134-29-2100, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. fitzsimmonse@wustl.edu
b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Mailstop 8134-29-2100, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA
c Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
d Center for m2Health, Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper provides a review of the recent literature on screening for eating disorders (EDs) on college campuses, and reports on methodology, prevalence rates, treatment receipt, and ED screening tools. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research highlights relatively high prevalence rates of EDs among students on college campuses, with the majority of studies demonstrating elevated prevalence compared to the general population. Among students who screened positive for an ED, approximately 20% or less reported having received treatment for their ED. Findings also revealed various recruitment strategies, methods, ED screening tools, and clinical cutoffs used to study this topic, making it challenging to draw firm conclusions about prevalence of EDs on college campuses. Recent research on ED screening on college campuses reveals that EDs are a significant problem among college students, and there is a marked treatment gap between those who need care and those who receive it. Implications and future research are discussed.

Author Keywords
College students;  Eating disorders;  Screening;  Treatment gap;  University

Document Type: Review
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Vincristine and bortezomib use distinct upstream mechanisms to activate a common SARM1-dependent axon degeneration program” (2019) JCI Insight

Vincristine and bortezomib use distinct upstream mechanisms to activate a common SARM1-dependent axon degeneration program
(2019) JCI Insight, 4 (17), art. no. e129920, . 

Geisler, S.a b f , Doan, R.A.a h , Cheng, G.C.a , Cetinkaya-Fisgin, A.c , Huang, S.X.a , Höke, A.c , Milbrandt, J.b d g , DiAntonio, A.b e

a Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
d Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Neurology, Washington University Medical School in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8111, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
g Department of Genetics, Washington University Medical School in St. Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8232, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
h Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States

Abstract
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent dose-limiting toxicities of anticancer therapy. Development of effective therapies to prevent chemotherapy-induced neuropathies could be enabled by a mechanistic understanding of axonal breakdown following exposure to neuropathy-causing agents. Here, we reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying axon degeneration induced by 2 widely used chemotherapeutic agents with distinct mechanisms of action: vincristine and bortezomib. We showed previously that genetic deletion of SARM1 blocks vincristine-induced neuropathy and demonstrate here that it also prevents axon destruction following administration of bortezomib in vitro and in vivo. Using cultured neurons, we found that vincristine and bortezomib converge on a core axon degeneration program consisting of nicotinamide mononucleotide NMNAT2, SARM1, and loss of NAD+ but engage different upstream mechanisms that closely resemble Wallerian degeneration after vincristine and apoptosis after bortezomib. We could inhibit the final common axon destruction pathway by preserving axonal NAD+ levels or expressing a candidate gene therapeutic that inhibits SARM1 in vitro. We suggest that these approaches may lead to therapies for vincristine- and bortezomib-induced neuropathies and possibly other forms of peripheral neuropathy. © 2019 American Society for Clinical Investigation.

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Virus-induced cochlear inflammation in newborn mice alters auditory function” (2019) JCI Insight

Virus-induced cochlear inflammation in newborn mice alters auditory function
(2019) JCI Insight, 4 (17), art. no. e128878, . 

Sung, C.Y.W.a , Seleme, M.C.b , Payne, S.c , Jonjic, S.d , Hirose, K.c , Britt, W.a b e

a Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Children’s Harbor Building (CHB) 107, 1600 6th Ave. S., Birmingham, AL 35233, United States
b Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, United States
c Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
e Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, United States

Abstract
Although human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a known cause of sensorineural hearing loss in infants with congenital HCMV (cCMV) infections, mechanisms that contribute to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in infants with cCMV infection are not well defined. Using a murine model of CMV infection during auditory development, we have shown that peripheral infection of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV) results in focal infection of the cochlea and virus-induced cochlear inflammation. Approximately 50%-60% of infected mice exhibited increased auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds across a range of sound frequencies. Histological analyses of the cochlea in MCMV-infected mice with elevated ABR thresholds revealed preservation of hair cell (HC) number and morphology in the organ of Corti. In contrast, the number of spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), synapses, and neurites connecting the cochlear HC and SGN nerve terminals were decreased. Decreasing cochlear inflammation by corticosteroid treatment of MCMV-infected mice resulted in preservation of SGN and improved auditory function. These findings show that virus-induced cochlear inflammation during early auditory development, rather than direct virus-mediated damage, could contribute to histopathology in the cochlea and altered auditory function without significant loss of HCs in the sensory epithelium. © 2019 American Society for Clinical Investigation.

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation: Role of Age, Sex, Bite Location, Severity, and Treatment” (2019) Journal of Medical Toxicology

Recovery from Copperhead Snake Envenomation: Role of Age, Sex, Bite Location, Severity, and Treatment
(2019) Journal of Medical Toxicology, . 

Lavonas, E.J.a b c , Burnham, R.I.a , Schwarz, J.a , Quackenbush, E.d , Lewis, B.e , Rose, S.R.f , Greene, S.g , Toschlog, E.A.h , Charlton, N.P.i , Mullins, M.E.j , Schwartz, R.k , Denning, D.l , Sharma, K.m , Kleinschmidt, K.m , Bush, S.P.n , Anderson, V.E.a , Ginde, A.A.c , Gerardo, C.J.o

a Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO, United States
b Department of Emergency Medicine, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO, United States
c Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States
d Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States
e Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX, United States
f Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States
g Henry J. N. Taub Department of Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States
h Department of Surgery, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States
i Division of Medical Toxicology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States
j Division of Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
k Department of Emergency Medicine and Hospital Services, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, United States
l Department of Surgery, Marshall Health, Huntington, WV, United States
m Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States
n Department of Emergency Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States
o Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States

Abstract
Introduction: Few data exist to understand the recovery phase of pit viper envenomation. A recently published placebo-controlled clinical trial affords this opportunity. The purpose of this study is to examine the time course of recovery from copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation patients managed with and without the use of antivenom, stratified by age, sex, anatomic site of envenomation, initial severity of envenomation, and geographic region. Methods: This is a post-hoc subgroup analysis of data from a multi-center double-blinded clinical trial of Fab antivenom (FabAV) vs. placebo. Outcomes were the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) score at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after envenomation. Least-squares mean PSFS score curves were calculated for each subgroup, and repeated measures ANOVA was used to estimate between-group comparisons. Results: Seventy-two subjects were included, of whom 44 received FabAV. Males demonstrated better overall recovery than females (model predicted PSFS score 6.18 vs 4.99; difference 1.19; 95% CI 0.12 to 2.25; p = 0.029). No sex difference was found in response to FabAV. Overall recovery and effect of FabAV were similar in adult vs adolescent patients, patients with upper vs lower extremity envenomation, and patients with initially mild vs moderate envenomation signs. Analysis by geographic location was not successful due to ANOVA mode instability. Conclusions: Male victims of copperhead snake envenomation demonstrate slightly better recovery than females, but response to Fab antivenom overall is similar across all subgroups studied. © 2019, American College of Medical Toxicology.

Author Keywords
Agkistrodon;  Antivenins;  Copperhead;  Envenomation;  Fab;  Snake;  Snake

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

“Assessing Implementation Strategy Reporting in the Mental Health Literature: A Narrative Review” (2019) Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research

Assessing Implementation Strategy Reporting in the Mental Health Literature: A Narrative Review
(2019) Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, . 

Hooley, C.a , Amano, T.b , Markovitz, L.c , Yaeger, L.d , Proctor, E.c

a School of Social Work, Brigham Young University, JFSB 2166, Provo, UT 84602, United States
b Department of Social Work, Rutgers University-Newark, 360 Dr. Martin Luther Kind Jr. Blvd., Newark, NJ 07130, United States
c Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1196, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
d Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8132, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

Abstract
Inadequate implementation strategy reporting restricts research synthesis and replicability. We explored the implementation strategy reporting quality of a sample of mental health articles using Proctor et al.’s (Implement Sci 8:139, 2013) reporting recommendations. We conducted a narrative review to generate the sample of articles and assigned a reporting quality score to each article. The mean article reporting score was 54% (range 17–100%). The most reported domains were: name (100%), action (82%), target (80%), and actor (67%). The least reported domains included definition (6%), temporality (26%), justification (34%), and outcome (37%). We discuss limitations and provide recommendations to improve reporting. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Author Keywords
Implementation strategies;  Mental health;  Reporting

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

“Transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography: A multicenter case series and technical report” (2019) Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery

Transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography: A multicenter case series and technical report
(2019) Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, . 

Osbun, J.W.a , Patel, B.a , Levitt, M.R.b , Yahanda, A.T.a , Shah, A.a , Dlouhy, K.M.a , Thatcher, J.P.c , Chicoine, M.R.a , Kim, L.J.d , Zipfel, G.J.a

a Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, United States
b Neurological Surgery Radiology and Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
c Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Abstract
Background: Use of the radial artery as an access site for neurointerventional procedures is gaining popularity after several studies in interventional cardiology have demonstrated superior patient safety, decreased length of stay, and patient preference compared with femoral artery access. The transradial approach has yet to be characterized for intraoperative cerebral angiography. Objective: To report a multicenter experience on the use of radial artery access in intraoperative cerebral angiography, including case series and discussion of technical nuances. Methods: 27 patients underwent attempted transradial cerebral angiography between May 2017 and May 2019. Data were collected regarding technique, patient positioning, vessels selected, technical success rate, and access site complications. Results: 24 of the 27 patients (88.8%) underwent successful transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography. 18 patients (66.7%) were positioned supine, 6 patients (22.2%) were positioned prone, 1 patient (3.7%) was positioned lateral, and 2 patients (7.4%) were positioned three-quarters prone. A total of 31 vessels were selected including 13 right carotid arteries (8 common, 1 external, 4 internal), 11 left carotid arteries (9 common and 2 internal), and 6 vertebral arteries (5 right and 1 left). Two patients (7.4%) required conversion to femoral access in order to complete the intraoperative angiogram (1 due to arterial vasospasm and 1 due to inadvertent venous catheterization). One procedure (3.7%) was aborted because of inability to obtain the appropriate fluoroscopic views due to patient positioning. No patient experienced stroke, arterial dissection, or access site complication. Conclusions: Transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography is safe and feasible with potential for improved operating room workflow ergonomics, faster patient mobility in the postoperative period, and reduced costs. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Author Keywords
aneurysm;  angiography;  arteriovenous malformation;  fistula;  technique

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

“Erratum: Heterogeneity of human brain tumor with lesion identification, localization, and analysis from MRI (Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, (S235291481930276X), (10.1016/j.imu.2019.100246))” (2019) Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

Erratum: Heterogeneity of human brain tumor with lesion identification, localization, and analysis from MRI (Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, (S235291481930276X), (10.1016/j.imu.2019.100246))
(2019) Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, art. no. 100243, . 

Roy, S.a , Bhattacharyya, D.b , Bandyopadhyay, S.K.c , Kim, T.-H.d

a Washington University in St. Louis, Dept. of Comp. Sc. & Engg., Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States
b Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Vignan’s Institute of Information Technology, Visakhapatnam, 530049, India
c Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Calcutta University Technology Campus, Kolkata, 700098, India
d Department of Convergence Security, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, 136-742, South Korea

Abstract
Objective: Accurate identification of brain tumors and their heterogeneity is a critical task in planning for proper therapy. A reliable fully automatic detection and analysis method for the brain tumor is necessary for an efficient measurement of the tumors and their extent. This paper presents a computerized approach to brain tumor-edema detection and analysis from the MRI of brain sequences. Method: Computer-aided diagnosis systems are focused on several research activities, and the ideas of the study of brain images with the diverse modality of heterogeneity by applying better image analysis algorithms. The proposed automated modern approach includes several stages of image segmentation, area and volume calculation, and locational findings using statistical and an unsupervised clustering prediction method. Result: The outcome of the proposed computerized method is compared with reference images and gives very promising results. Performance of our proposed methodology is also assessed with the gold standard recent comparable method, and our method gives better results in the context of accuracy and error metrics. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of improving the overall detection, segmentation, and quantification of a variety of tumors for different cases from multiple standard datasets. © 2019

Author Keywords
Abnormality detection;  Accuracy estimation;  Brain tumor;  Heterogeneity;  Magnetic resonance imaging;  Segmentation

Document Type: Erratum
Publication Stage: Article in Press
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“The Critical Portions of Carpal Tunnel Release, Ulnar Nerve Transposition, and Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Distal Part of the Radius” (2018) The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume

The Critical Portions of Carpal Tunnel Release, Ulnar Nerve Transposition, and Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Distal Part of the Radius
(2018) The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 100 (23), p. e148. 

Dy, C.J.a , Antes, A.L.a , Osei, D.A.b , Goldfarb, C.A.a , DuBois, J.M.a

a Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (C.J.D. and C.A.G.), Division of Public Health Services, Department of Surgery (C.J.D.), Division of General Medical Sciences (A.L.A. and J.M.D.), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, NY, NY, Sweden

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Overlapping surgery is attracting increased scrutiny. The American College of Surgeons states that the attending surgeon must be present for all critical portions of a surgical procedure; however, critical portions of surgical procedures are not defined. We hypothesized that a Delphi panel process would measure consensus on critical portions of 3 common hand surgical procedures. METHODS: We used a Delphi process to achieve consensus on the critical portions of carpal tunnel release, ulnar nerve transposition, and open reduction and internal fixation of the distal part of the radius. The panelists were 10 hand surgeons (7 fellowship-trained surgeons and 3 fellows). Following an in-person discussion to finalize steps for each procedure, 2 online rounds were completed to rate steps from 1 (not critical) to 9 (extremely critical). We operationalized consensus as ≥80% of ratings within the same range: 1 to 3 (not critical), 4 to 6 (somewhat critical), and 7 to 9 (critical). Because of a lack of consensus on some steps after round 2, another in-person discussion and a third online round were conducted to rate only steps involving disagreement or somewhat critical ratings using a dichotomous scale (critical or not critical). RESULTS: Following the first 2 rounds, there was consensus on 19 of 24 steps (including 3 steps being somewhat critical) and no consensus on 5 of 24 steps. At the end of round 3, there was consensus on all but 2 steps (identification of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve in ulnar nerve transposition and clinical assessment of joint stability in open reduction and internal fixation of the distal part of the radius), with moderate disagreement (3 compared with 7) for both. CONCLUSIONS: The panel reached consensus on the designation of critical or noncritical for all steps of a carpal tunnel release, all but 1 step of an ulnar nerve transposition, and all but 1 step of open reduction and internal fixation of the distal part of the radius. The lack of consensus on whether 2 of the steps are critical leaves this determination at the discretion of the attending surgeon. The findings of our Delphi panel provide guidance to our division on which portions of the surgical procedure are critical and thus require the attending surgeon’s presence.

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus