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WashU weekly Neuroscience publications

“A comparison of buprenorphine and psychosocial treatment outcomes in psychosocial and medical settings” (2019) Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment

A comparison of buprenorphine and psychosocial treatment outcomes in psychosocial and medical settings
(2019) Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 104, pp. 135-143. 

Presnall, N.J.a b , Wolf, D.A.P.S.a , Brown, D.S.a , Beeler-Stinn, S.a , Grucza, R.A.b

a Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States
b Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8134, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States

Abstract
Background: Facing an epidemic of opioid-related mortality, many government health departments, insurers, and treatment providers have attempted to expand patient access to buprenorphine in psychosocial substance use disorder (SUD) programs and medical settings. Methods: With Missouri Medicaid data from 2008 to 2015, we used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the relative hazards for treatment attrition and SUD-related emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations associated with buprenorphine in psychosocial SUD programs and medical settings. We also tested the association of buprenorphine with hours of psychosocial treatment during the first 30 days of psychosocial SUD treatment. The analytic sample included claims from 7606 individuals with an OUD diagnosis. Results: Compared to psychosocial treatment without buprenorphine (PSY), the addition of buprenorphine (PSY-B) was associated with a significantly reduced hazard for treatment attrition (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.62–0.71). Among buprenorphine episodes, office-based (B-OBOT), outpatient hospital (B-OPH), and no documented setting (B-PHA) were associated with reduced hazards for treatment attrition when compared to the psychosocial SUD setting (B-PSY) (adjusted hazard ratios: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.24–0.31; 0.46, 95% CI: 0.39–0.54; 0.70, 95% CI: 0.61–0.81). Compared to B-PSY, B-OBOT and B-PHA were associated with significantly reduced hazards for a SUD-related ED visits or hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratios: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41–0.85; 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.78). There was no significant difference between B-PSY and B-OPH or B-PSY and PSY in hazard for an SUD-related ED visit or hospitalization. Conclusions: Our findings support the conclusion that adding buprenorphine to Medicaid-covered psychosocial SUD treatment reduces patient attrition and SUD-related ED visits or hospitalizations but that buprenorphine treatment in office-based medical settings is even more effective in reducing these negative outcomes. Policy-makers should consider ways to expand buprenorphine access in all settings, but particularly in office-based medical settings. Buprenorphine treatment in an unbilled setting was associated with an increased hazard for patient attrition when compared to treatment in billed medical settings, indicating the importance of Medicaid-covered provider visits for patient retention. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Buprenorphine;  Intensive outpatient;  Medicaid;  OBOT;  Office-based opioid therapy;  Opioid use disorder;  OUD;  Pharmacotherapy;  Primary care;  Psychosocial

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Differential In Vitro Infection of Neural Cells by Astroviruses” (2019) mBio

Differential In Vitro Infection of Neural Cells by Astroviruses
(2019) mBio, 10 (4), . 

Janowski, A.B.a , Klein, R.S.b c d , Wang, D.c e

a Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Department of Neurosciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
Recent advances in unbiased pathogen discovery have implicated astroviruses as pathogens of the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals, including humans. However, the capacity of astroviruses to be cultured in CNS-derived cells in vitro has not been reported to date. Both astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) and classic human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4; mamastrovirus 1) have been previously detected from cases of human encephalitis. We tested the ability of primary human neurons, primary human astrocytes, and other immortalized human nervous system cell lines (SK-N-SH, U87 MG, and SW-1088) to support infection and replication of these two astrovirus genotypes. Primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells supported the full viral life cycle of VA1 with a >100-fold increase in viral RNA levels during a multistep growth curve, detection of viral capsid, and a >100-fold increase in viral titer. Primary astrocytes were permissive with respect to HAstV4 infection and replication but did not yield infectious virus, suggesting abortive infection. Similarly, abortive infection of VA1 was observed in SW-1088 and U87 MG cells. Elevated expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was detected in VA1-infected primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells, suggesting that VA1 infection can induce a proinflammatory host response. These findings establish an in vitro cell culture model that is essential for investigation of the basic biology of astroviruses and their neuropathogenic potential.IMPORTANCE Encephalitis remains a diagnostic conundrum in humans as over 50% of cases are managed without the identification of an etiology. Astroviruses have been detected from the central nervous system of mammals in association with disease, suggesting that this family of RNA viruses could be responsible for cases of some neurological diseases that are currently without an ascribed etiology. However, there are significant barriers to understanding astrovirus infection as the capacity of these viruses to replicate in nervous system cells in vitro has not been determined. We describe primary and immortalized cultured cells of the nervous system that support infection by astroviruses. These results further corroborate the role of astroviruses in causing neurological diseases and will serve as an essential model to interrogate the neuropathogenesis of astrovirus infection. Copyright © 2019 Janowski et al.

Author Keywords
astrovirus;  astrovirus VA1;  cell culture;  encephalitis;  virology

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“Promoting psychological well-being through an evidence-based mindfulness training program” (2019) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Promoting psychological well-being through an evidence-based mindfulness training program
(2019) Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, art. no. 237, . 

Tang, Y.-Y.a , Tang, R.b , Gross, J.J.c

a Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States
b Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Abstract
Psychological well-being is a core feature of mental health, and may be defined as including hedonic (enjoyment, pleasure) and eudaimonic (meaning, fulfillment) happiness, as well as resilience (coping, emotion regulation, healthy problem solving). To promote psychological well-being, it is helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms associated with this construct and then develop targeted and effective training programs. In this perspective article, we discuss key components and potential brain-body mechanisms related to psychological well-being and propose mindfulness training as a promising way to improve it. Based on a series of randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies of one form of mindfulness training in adolescents and adults, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT), we use IBMT as an exemplar to provide research evidence of the positive effects of mindfulness training on psychological well-being. We focus on one of the mechanisms by which IBMT enhances psychological well-being—the interaction between mind (mindfulness) and body (bodifulness)—which involves both the central nervous system (CNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We also highlight the role of brain self-control networks, including the anterior cingulate cortex/prefrontal cortex (ACC/PFC), in improving psychological well-being. We suggest that mindfulness training may be a promising program that promotes the synergistic engagement of mind and body to achieve the goals of enhancing psychological well-being. © 2019 Tang, Tang and Gross.

Author Keywords
Anterior cingulate cortex;  Bodifulness;  Emotions;  IBMT;  Mindfulness;  Psychological well-being;  Quality of life;  Striatum

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“Separability of calcium slow waves and functional connectivity during wake, sleep, and anesthesia” (2019) Neurophotonics

Separability of calcium slow waves and functional connectivity during wake, sleep, and anesthesia
(2019) Neurophotonics, 6 (3), art. no. 035002, . 

Brier, L.M.a , Landsness, E.C.b , Snyder, A.Z.a b , Wright, P.W.c , Baxter, G.A.a , Bauer, A.Q.a c , Lee, J.-M.b , Culver, J.P.a c d

a Washington University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Washington University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Biomedical Engineering, St. Louis, MO, United States
d Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Physics, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
Modulation of brain state, e.g., by anesthesia, alters the correlation structure of spontaneous activity, especially in the delta band. This effect has largely been attributed to the 1 Hz slow oscillation that is characteristic of anesthesia and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the effect of the slow oscillation on correlation structures and the spectral content of spontaneous activity across brain states (including NREM) has not been comprehensively examined. Further, discrepancies between activity dynamics observed with hemoglobin versus calcium (GCaMP6) imaging have not been reconciled. Lastly, whether the slow oscillation replaces functional connectivity (FC) patterns typical of the alert state, or superimposes on them, remains unclear. Here, we use wide-field calcium imaging to study spontaneous cortical activity in awake, anesthetized, and naturally sleeping mice. We find modest brain state-dependent changes in infraslow correlations but larger changes in GCaMP6 delta correlations. Principal component analysis of GCaMP6 sleep/anesthesia data in the delta band revealed that the slow oscillation is largely confined to the first three components. Removal of these components revealed a correlation structure strikingly similar to that observed during wake. These results indicate that, during NREM sleep/anesthesia, the slow oscillation superimposes onto a canonical FC architecture. © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

Author Keywords
Calcium;  Functional connectivity;  Hemoglobin;  Sleep;  Slow oscillation

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“Long-term treatment with eteplirsen in nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy” (2019) Medicine

Long-term treatment with eteplirsen in nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(2019) Medicine, 98 (26), p. e15858. 

Alfano, L.N.a , Charleston, J.S.b , Connolly, A.M.c d , Cripe, L.a , Donoghue, C.b , Dracker, R.e , Dworzak, J.b , Eliopoulos, H.b , Frank, D.E.b , Lewis, S.a , Lucas, K.b , Lynch, J.b , Milici, A.J.f , Flynt, A.g , Naughton, E.b , Rodino-Klapac, L.R.a h , Sahenk, Z.a , Schnell, F.J.b , Young, G.D.f , Mendell, J.R.a , Lowes, L.P.a

a Pediatrics, Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
b Sarepta Therapeutics, Inc., Cambridge, MA, United States
c Currently: Pediatrics, Center for Gene Therapy, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States
d Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Summerwood Pediatrics/Infusacare Medical Services, PC, Liverpool, NY, United States
f Flagship Biosciences, Westminster, CO, United States
g PharPoint Research, Durham, NC, United States
h Cambridge, MA, United States

Abstract
This analysis aims to describe the outcomes of two nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who participated in two clinical studies. The two consecutive trials of eteplirsen (studies 201 and 202) were conducted in patients with DMD (N = 12) and confirmed genetic mutations amenable to exon 51 skipping.In study 201, 12 patients were randomized to receive once-weekly, double-blind intravenous infusions of eteplirsen 30 or 50 mg/kg or placebo for 24 weeks; patients then received open-label eteplirsen during weeks 25 through 28. All 12 patients continued onto open-label extension study 202 and received long-term treatment with eteplirsen. We compared cardiac, pulmonary, and upper limb function and dystrophin production in the nonambulatory twin patients versus the 10 ambulatory patients through 240 combined treatment weeks.Ten study patients remained ambulatory through both studies, while the identical twin patients both experienced early, rapid loss of ambulation. The twin patients had greater disease severity at baseline (6-minute walk test [6MWT], 330 and 256 m) versus the other patients (n = 10; 6MWT range, 341-418 m). They maintained cardiac and upper limb function through combined week 240, with outcomes similar to those of the patients who remained ambulatory. Dystrophin production was confirmed following eteplirsen treatment.Despite the loss of ambulation, other markers of disease progression remained relatively stable in the eteplirsen-treated twin patients and were similar to those of the ambulatory patients.

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“Imprisoning yoga: Yoga practice may increase the character maturity of male prison inmates” (2019) Frontiers in Psychiatry

Imprisoning yoga: Yoga practice may increase the character maturity of male prison inmates
(2019) Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10 (JUN), art. no. 406, . 

Kerekes, N.a , Brändström, S.b , Nilsson, T.c

a Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden
b Clinical Ass. of the Center for Well-Being, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
c Centre for Ethics, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Abstract
Background: A specific personality profile, characterized by low character maturity (low scores on the self-directedness and cooperativeness character dimensions) and high scores on the novelty seeking temperament dimension of the temperament and character inventory (TCI), has been associated with aggressive antisocial behavior in male prison inmates. It has also been shown that yoga practiced in Swedish correctional facilities has positive effects on the inmates’ well-being and on risk factors associated with criminal recidivism (e.g., antisocial behavior). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the positive effect of yoga practice on inmates’ behaviors could be extended to include eventual changes in their personality profile. Methods: Male prison inmates (N = 111) in Sweden participated in a randomized controlled 10-week long yoga intervention trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either a yoga group (one class a week; n = 57) or a control group (free of choice weekly physical activity; n = 54). All the inmates completed the TCI questionnaire before and after the intervention period as part of an assessment battery. Results: After the 10-week-long intervention period male inmates scored significantly lower on the novelty seeking and the harm avoidance and significantly higher on the self-directedness dimensions of the TCI. There was a significant medium strong interaction effect between time and group belonging for the self-directedness dimension of character favoring the yoga group. Conclusion: A 10-week-long yoga practice intervention among male inmates in Swedish correctional facilities increased the inmates’ character maturity, improving such abilities as their capability to take responsibility, feel more purposeful, and being more self-Acceptant-features that previously were found to be associated with decreased aggressive antisocial behavior. © 2007-2019 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved.

Author Keywords
Character Maturity;  Prison;  Self-Directedness;  Temperament And Character Inventory;  Yoga

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“NOP receptor signaling cascades” (2019) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology

NOP receptor signaling cascades
(2019) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 254, pp. 131-139. 

Parker, K.E.a , Bruchas, M.R.b

a Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Basic Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Center for Neurobiology of Addiction, Pain, and Emotion, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Abstract
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide (NOP) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor with wide distribution throughout the peripheral and central nervous system. Similar to other opioid receptors, NOP receptors couple to intracellular second messengers and regulatory proteins to affect biological systems. In this chapter, we review the current literature for NOP signaling cascades including their role as classic GPCRs, the investigation of their kinase and arrestin signaling pathways, and the importance of examining biased signaling to critically evaluate the therapeutic potential of novel NOP agonists. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Author Keywords
Arrestin;  Bias;  G protein;  N/OFQ;  Nociceptin;  NOP receptors

Document Type: Book Chapter
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus

“Predictors of preoperative endovascular embolization of meningiomas: Subanalysis of anatomic location and arterial supply” (2019) Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery

Predictors of preoperative endovascular embolization of meningiomas: Subanalysis of anatomic location and arterial supply
(2019) Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, . 

Barros, G.a , Feroze, A.H.a , Sen, R.a , Kelly, C.M.a b , Barber, J.a , Hallam, D.K.a c , Ghodke, B.a c , Osbun, J.W.d e f , Kim, L.J.a b c , Levitt, M.R.a b c g

a Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, United States
b Stroke and Applied Neuroscience Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
c Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
d Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
e Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
f Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States
g Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Abstract
Introduction: Endovascular embolization of intracranial meningiomas is commonly used as an adjunct to surgical resection. We sought to describe the anatomic locations and vascular supplies of meningiomas to identify characteristics predictive of successful preoperative endovascular embolization. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 139 meningioma cases receiving cerebral angiograms for possible preoperative endovascular embolization at our institution between December 2000 and March 2017. The extent of embolization, arterial supply, anatomic location, and procedural complications were recorded for each case. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify tumor characteristics that predicted successful embolization. Results: Of the total meningioma patients undergoing preoperative angiography, 78% (108/139) were successfully embolized, with a 2.8% periprocedural complication rate (3/108). Within the subset of patients with successful embolization, 31% (33/108) achieved complete angiographic embolization. Significant multivariate predictors of embolization (either partial or complete) were convexity/parasagittal locations (OR 5.15, 95% CI 0.93 to 28.54, p=0.060), meningohypophyseal trunk (MHT, OR 4.65, 95% CI 1.63 to 13.23, p=0.004), middle meningeal artery (MMA, OR 10.89, 95% CI 3.43 to 34.64, p<0.001), and ascending pharyngeal artery supply (APA, OR 9.96, 95% CI 1.88 to 52.73, p=0.007). Significant predictors for complete embolization were convexity/parasagittal locations (OR 4.79, 95% CI 1.66 to 13.84, p=0.004) and embolized APA supply (OR 6.94, 95% CI 1.90 to 25.39, p=0.003). Multiple arterial supply was a negative predictor of complete embolization (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98, p=0.05). Conclusions: Tumor characteristics can be used to predict the likelihood of preoperative meningioma embolization. Parasagittal and convexity meningiomas, and those with APA supply, are most likely to achieve complete angiographic embolization. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Author Keywords
embolization;  endovascular;  meningioma;  tumor

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

“Gene-based analysis in HRC imputed genome wide association data identifies three novel genes for Alzheimer’s disease” (2019) PLoS ONE

Gene-based analysis in HRC imputed genome wide association data identifies three novel genes for Alzheimer’s disease
(2019) PLoS ONE, 14 (7), art. no. e0218111, . 

Baker, E.a b , Sims, R.a , Leonenko, G.a , Frizzati, A.a , Harwood, J.C.a , Grozeva, D.a , Morgan, K.c , Passmore, P.d , Holmes, C.e , Powell, J.f g , Brayne, C.h , Gill, M.i j , Mead, S.k , Bossù, P.l , Spalletta, G.m , Goate, A.M.n o , Cruchaga, C.o p , Maier, W.q , Heun, R.r , Jessen, F.q s , Peters, O.t u , Dichgans, M.v w x , FröLich, L.y , Ramirez, A.s z , Jones, L.a , Hardy, J.aa , Ivanov, D.b , Hill, M.b , Holmans, P.a , Allen, N.D.b , Morgan, B.P.b , Seshadri, S.ab , Schellenberg, G.D.ac , Amouyel, P.ad , Williams, J.a b , Escott-Price, V.a b

a Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
b UK Dementia Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
c Human Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Life Sciences Building A27, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
d Centre for Public Health, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queens University, Belfast, United Kingdom
e Division of Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
f Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom
g Genetic Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, Australia
h Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
i Mercer’s Institute for Research on Ageing, St. James’ Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
j James Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
k MRC Prion Unit, UCL, Institute of Prion Diseases, London, United Kingdom
l Experimental Neuropsychobiology Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Department of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, Rome, Italy
m Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
n Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States
o Hope Center Program on Protein Aggregation and Neurodegeneration, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
p Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
q German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, 53127, Germany
r Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, 53127, Germany
s Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, 50937, Germany
t Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Berlin, Berlin, Germany
u German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Berlin, Germany
v Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany
w German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE, Munich), Munich, 80336, Germany
x Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany
y Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
z Department for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Geriatric Psychiatry, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
aa Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
ab Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States
ac Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States
ad Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille University Hospital, Institut Pasteur de Lille, LabEx DISTALZ-UMR1167 – RID-AGE – Risk factors and molecular determinants of aging-related, Lille, F-59000, France

Abstract
Late onset Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer’s disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer’s cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10−6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10−7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10−6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer’s disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair. © 2019 Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Document Type: Article
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access

“In Reply: The in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Against Glioblastoma are Mediated in Part by Toll-like Receptor 4” (2018) Neurosurgery

In Reply: The in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Against Glioblastoma are Mediated in Part by Toll-like Receptor 4
(2018) Neurosurgery, 83 (3), p. E130. 

Chicoine, M.R.

Department of Neurosurgery Washington University School of Medicine St. LouisMO, United States

Document Type: Note
Publication Stage: Final
Source: Scopus
Access Type: Open Access