Arts & Sciences Brown School McKelvey School Medicine Weekly Publications

WashU weekly Neuroscience publications

"Brain multiplexes reveal morphological connectional biomarkers fingerprinting late brain dementia states" (2018) Scientific Reports

Brain multiplexes reveal morphological connectional biomarkers fingerprinting late brain dementia states
(2018) Scientific Reports, 8 (1), art. no. 4103, . 

Mahjoub, I.a b , Mahjoub, M.A.b , Rekik, I.a , Weiner, M.c , Aisen, P.d , Petersen, R.e , Jack, C.f , Jagust, W.g , Trojanowki, J.h , Toga, A.i , Beckett, L.j , Green, R.k , Saykin, A.l , Morris, J.m , Shaw, L.m , Kaye, J.n , Quinn, J.n , Silbert, L.n , Lind, B.n , Carter, R.n , Dolen, S.n , Schneider, L.n , Pawluczyk, S.i , Beccera, M.i , Teodoro, L.i , Spann, B.i , Brewer, J.o , Vanderswag, H.o , Fleisher, A.o bb , Heidebrink, J.p , Lord, J.p , Mason, S.f , Albers, C.f , Knopman, D.f , Johnson, K.f , Doody, R.q , Villanueva-Meyer, J.q , Chowdhury, M.q , Rountree, S.q , Dang, M.q , Stern, Y.r , Honig, L.r , Bell, K.r , Ances, B.m , Carroll, M.m , Creech, M.c , Franklin, E.m , Mintun, M.m , Schneider, S.m , Oliver, A.m , Marson, D.s , Grifth, R.s , Clark, D.s , Geldmacher, D.s , Brockington, J.s , Roberson, E.s , Natelson Love, M.s , Grossman, H.t , Mitsis, E.t , Shah, R.u , Detoledo-Morrell, L.u , Duara, R.v , Varon, D.v , Greig, M.v , Roberts, P.v , Albert, M.w , Onyike, C.w , D’Agostino, D.w , Kielb, S.w , Galvin, J.x , Cerbone, B.x , Michel, C.x , Pogorelec, D.x , Rusinek, H.x , De Leon, M.x , Glodzik, L.x , De Santi, S.x , Doraiswamy, P.y , Petrella, J.y , Borges-Neto, S.y , Wong, T.y , Coleman, E.y , Smith, C.z , Jicha, G.z , Hardy, P.z , Sinha, P.z , Oates, E.z , Conrad, G.z , Porsteinsson, A.aa , Goldstein, B.aa , Martin, K.aa , Makino, K.aa , Ismail, M.aa , Brand, C.aa , Mulnard, R.ab , Thai, G.ab , Mc-Adams-Ortiz, C.ab , Womack, K.ac , Mathews, D.ac , Quiceno, M.ac , Levey, A.ad , Lah, J.ad , Cellar, J.ad , Burns, J.ae , Swerdlow, R.ae , Brooks, W.ae , Apostolova, L.af , Tingus, K.af , Woo, E.af , Silverman, D.af , Lu, P.af , Bartzokis, G.af , Graf-Radford, N.ag , Parftt, F.ag , Kendall, T.ag , Johnson, H.ag , Farlow, M.l , Hake, A.M.l , Matthews, B.l , Brosch, J.l , Herring, S.l , Hunt, C.l , Dyck, C.ah , Carson, R.ah , MacAvoy, M.ah , Varma, P.ah , Chertkow, H.ai , Bergman, H.ai , Hosein, C.ai , Black, S.aj , Stefanovic, B.aj , Caldwell, C.aj , Robin Hsiung, G.-Y.aj , Feldman, H.ak , Mudge, B.ak , Assaly, M.ak , Finger, E.al , Pasternack, S.al , Rachisky, I.al , Trost, D.al , Kertesz, A.al , Bernick, C.am , Munic, D.am , Mesulam, M.-M.an , Lipowski, K.an , Weintraub, S.am , Bonakdarpour, B.am , Kerwin, D.am , Wu, C.-K.am , Johnson, N.an , Sadowsky, C.ao , Villena, T.ao , Turner, R.S.ap , Johnson, K.ap , Reynolds, B.ap , Sperling, R.aq , Johnson, K.aq , Marshall, G.aq , Yesavage, J.ar , Taylor, J.ar , Lane, B.ar , Rosen, A.ar , Tinklenberg, J.ar , Sabbagh, M.as , Belden, C.as , Jacobson, S.as , Sirrel, S.as , Kowall, N.at , Killiany, R.at , Budson, A.at , Norbash, A.at , Johnson, P.L.at , Obisesan, T.au , Wolday, S.au , Allard, J.au , Lerner, A.av , Ogrocki, P.av , Tatsuoka, C.av , Fatica, P.av , Fletcher, E.aw , Maillard, P.aw , Olichney, J.aw , Decarli, C.aw , Carmichael, O.aw , Kittur, S.ax , Borrie, M.ay , Lee, T.-Y.ay , Bartha, R.ay , Johnson, S.az , Asthana, S.az , Carlsson, C.az , Potkin, S.ba , Preda, A.ba , Nguyen, D.ba , Tariot, P.bb , Burke, A.bb , Trncic, N.bb , Reeder, S.bb , Bates, V.bc , Capote, H.bc , Rainka, M.bc , Scharre, D.bd , Kataki, M.bd , Adeli, A.bd , Zimmerman, E.be , Celmins, D.be , Brown, A.be , Pearlson, G.bf , Blank, K.bf , Anderson, K.bf , Flashman, L.bg , Seltzer, M.bg , Hynes, M.bg , Santulli, R.bg , Sink, K.bh , Gordineer, L.bh , Williamson, J.bh , Garg, P.bh , Watkins, F.bh , Ott, B.bi , Querfurth, H.bi , Tremont, G.bi , Salloway, S.bj , Malloy, P.bj , Correia, S.bj , Rosen, H.bk , Miller, B.bk , Perry, D.bk , Mintzer, J.bl , Spicer, K.bl , Bachman, D.bl , Pomara, N.bm , Hernando, R.bn , Sarrael, A.bm , Relkin, N.bn , Chaing, G.bn , Lin, M.bn , Ravdin, L.bn , Smith, A.bo , Raj, B.A.bo , Fargher, K.bo

a BASIRA Lab, CVIP Group, School of Science and Engineering, Computing, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
b LATIS Lab, ENISo – National Engineering School of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia
c Magnetic Resonance Unit at the VA Medical Center and Radiology, Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, United States
d San Diego School of Medicine, University of California, California, United States
e Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States
f Mayo Clinic Rochester, United States
g University of California, Berkeley, United States
h University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, United States
i University of Southern California, California, United States
j University of California, Davis, CA, United States
k MPH Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, United States
l Indiana University, Indiana, United States
m Washington University St. Louis, St Louis, MO, United States
n Oregon Health and Science University, Oregon, United States
o University of California-San Diego, California, United States
p University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
q Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States
r Columbia University Medical Center, New York, SC, United States
s University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, United States
t Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, United States
u Rush University Medical Center, Rush University, Chicago, IL, United States
v Wien Center, Miami, FL, United States
w Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
x New York University, New York, NY, United States
y Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
z University of Kentucky, Lexington, KT, United States
aa University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States
ab University of California, United States
ac University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, United States
ad Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
ae University of Kansas, Medical Center, Kansas, United States
af University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
ag Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, United States
ah Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States
ai McGill University, Montreal-Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada
aj Sunnybrook Health SciencesON, United States
ak U.B.C. Clinic for AD and Related Disorders, Vancouver, BC, Canada
al Cognitive Neurology – St. Joseph’s, Ontario, United States
am Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Ohio, United States
an Northwestern University, San Francisco, United States
ao Premiere Research Inst (Palm Beach Neurology), west Palm Beach, United States
ap Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States
aq Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Massachusetts, United States
ar Stanford University, California, United States
as Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ, United States
at Boston University, Massachusetts, United States
au Howard University, Washington, DC, United States
av Case Western Reserve University, Ohio, United States
aw University of California, Davis – SacramentoCA, United States
ax Neurological Care of CNY, Liverpool, NY, United States
ay Parkwood Hospital, Pennsylvania, United States
az University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, United States
ba Univarsity of California, Irvine, United States
bb Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States
bc Dent Neurologic Institute, Amherst, NY, United States
bd Ohio State University, Ohio, United States
be Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, United States
bf Hartford Hospital, Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford, CT, United States
bg Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, United States
bh Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, United States
bi Rhode Island Hospital, State of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, United States
bj Butler Hospital, Providence, RI, United States
bk University of California, San Francisco, United States
bl Medical University South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States
bm Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY, United States
bn Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States
bo USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States

Abstract
Accurate diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) before conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is invaluable for patient treatment. Many works showed that MCI and AD affect functional and structural connections between brain regions as well as the shape of cortical regions. However, ‘shape connections’ between brain regions are rarely investigated -e.g., how morphological attributes such as cortical thickness and sulcal depth of a specific brain region change in relation to morphological attributes in other regions. To fill this gap, we unprecedentedly design morphological brain multiplexes for late MCI/AD classification. Specifically, we use structural T1-w MRI to define morphological brain networks, each quantifying similarity in morphology between different cortical regions for a specific cortical attribute. Then, we define a brain multiplex where each intra-layer represents the morphological connectivity network of a specific cortical attribute, and each inter-layer encodes the similarity between two consecutive intra-layers. A significant performance gain is achieved when using the multiplex architecture in comparison to other conventional network analysis architectures. We also leverage this architecture to discover morphological connectional biomarkers fingerprinting the difference between late MCI and AD stages, which included the right entorhinal cortex and right caudal middle frontal gyrus. © 2018 The Author(s).

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

"Construction of a neonatal cortical surface atlas using Multimodal Surface Matching in the Developing Human Connectome Project" (2018) NeuroImage

Construction of a neonatal cortical surface atlas using Multimodal Surface Matching in the Developing Human Connectome Project
(2018) NeuroImage, 179, pp. 11-29. 

Bozek, J.a , Makropoulos, A.b , Schuh, A.b , Fitzgibbon, S.c , Wright, R.d , Glasser, M.F.e f , Coalson, T.S.e , O’Muircheartaigh, J.d h , Hutter, J.d , Price, A.N.d , Cordero-Grande, L.d , Teixeira, R.P.A.G.d , Hughes, E.d , Tusor, N.d , Baruteau, K.P.d , Rutherford, M.A.d , Edwards, A.D.d , Hajnal, J.V.d , Smith, S.M.c , Rueckert, D.b , Jenkinson, M.c , Robinson, E.C.g

a Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
b Biomedical Image Analysis Group, Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
c Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
d Centre for the Developing Brain, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
e Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
f St. Lukes Hospital, St. Louis, MO, United States
g Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom
h Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom

Abstract
We propose a method for constructing a spatio-temporal cortical surface atlas of neonatal brains aged between 36 and 44 weeks of post-menstrual age (PMA) at the time of scan. The data were acquired as part of the Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP), and the constructed surface atlases are publicly available. The method is based on a spherical registration approach: Multimodal Surface Matching (MSM), using cortical folding for driving the alignment. Templates have been generated for the anatomical cortical surface and for the cortical feature maps: sulcal depth, curvature, thickness, T1w/T2w myelin maps and cortical regions. To achieve this, cortical surfaces from 270 infants were first projected onto the sphere. Templates were then generated in two stages: first, a reference space was initialised via affine alignment to a group average adult template. Following this, templates were iteratively refined through repeated alignment of individuals to the template space until the variability of the average feature sets converged. Finally, bias towards the adult reference was removed by applying the inverse of the average affine transformations on the template and de-drifting the template. We used temporal adaptive kernel regression to produce age-dependant atlases for 9 weeks (36–44 weeks PMA). The generated templates capture expected patterns of cortical development including an increase in gyrification as well as an increase in thickness and T1w/T2w myelination with increasing age. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Cortical surface atlas;  dHCP;  MRI;  MSM;  Neonatal

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

"Recent advances in the use of MRI to assess early human cortical development" (2018) Journal of Magnetic Resonance

Recent advances in the use of MRI to assess early human cortical development
(2018) Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 293, pp. 56-69. 

Neil, J.J.a , Smyser, C.D.b

a Department of Pediatric Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, United States
b Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics and Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., Campus Box 8111, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
Over the past decade, a number of advanced magnetic resonance-based methods have been brought to bear on questions related to early development of the human cerebral cortex. Herein, we describe studies employing analysis of cortical surface folding (cortical cartography), cortical microstructure (diffusion anisotropy), and cortically-based functional networks (resting state-functional connectivity MRI). The fundamentals of each MR method are described, followed by a discussion of application of the method to developing cortex and potential clinical uses. We use premature birth as an exemplar of how these modalities can be used to investigate the effects of medical and environmental variables on early cortical development. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Author Keywords
Brain development;  Cortical cartography;  Diffusion imaging;  Functional connectivity MRI;  Neonate

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

"New advances in amblyopia therapy II: Refractive therapies" (2018) British Journal of Ophthalmology

New advances in amblyopia therapy II: Refractive therapies
(2018) British Journal of Ophthalmology, . Article in Press. 

Kraus, C.L.a , Culican, S.M.b

a Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States
b Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
The treatment of anisometropic or ametropic amblyopia has traditionally enjoyed a high treatment success rate. Early initiation and consistent use of spectacle correction can completely resolve amblyopia in a majority of patients. For those with anisometropic amblyopia that fail to improve with glasses wear alone, patching or atropine penalisation can lead to equalisation of visual acuity. However, successful treatment requires full-time compliance with refractive correction and this can be a challenge for a patient population that often has one eye with good acuity without correction. Other barriers for a select population with high anisometropic or ametropic amblyopia include rejection of glasses for various reasons including discomfort, behavioural or sensory problems, postural issues and visually significant aniseikonia. When consistent wear of optical correction proves difficult and patching/atropine remains a major obstacle, surgical correction of refractive error has proven success in achieving vision improvement. Acting as a means to achieve spectacle independence or reducing the overall needed refractive correction, refractive surgery can offer a unique treatment option for this patient population. Laser surgery, phakic intraocular lenses and clear lens exchange are three approaches to altering the refractive state of the eye. Each has documented success in improving vision, particularly in populations where glasses wear has not been possible. Surgical correction of refractive error has a risk profile greater than that of more traditional therapies. However, its use in a specific population offers the opportunity for improving visual acuity in children who otherwise have poor outcomes with glasses and patching/atropine alone. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Author Keywords
Child health (paediatrics);  Treatment Surgery;  Vision

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

"Point: Moral distress can indicate inappropriate care at end-of-Life" (2018) Psycho-Oncology

Point: Moral distress can indicate inappropriate care at end-of-Life
(2018) Psycho-Oncology, 27 (6), pp. 1490-1492. 

Mullin, J.a , Bogetz, J.b

a Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States
b Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States

Author Keywords
advance care planning;  cancer;  communication;  end-of-life care;  ethics;  futile care;  moral distress;  oncology;  patient-centered care

Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus

"Measures of metabolism provide insights into hippocampal sclerosis" (2018) Brain

Measures of metabolism provide insights into hippocampal sclerosis
(2018) Brain, 141 (4), pp. 946-948. 

Gordon, B.A.

Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States

Document Type: Note
Source: Scopus

"The Impact of Traumatic Experiences on Risky Sexual Behaviors in Black and White Young Adult Women" (2018) Women's Health Issues

The Impact of Traumatic Experiences on Risky Sexual Behaviors in Black and White Young Adult Women
(2018) Women’s Health Issues, . Article in Press. 

Werner, K.B.a , Cunningham-Williams, R.M.b , Sewell, W.b , Agrawal, A.c , McCutcheon, V.V.c , Waldron, M.c d , Heath, A.C.c , Bucholz, K.K.c

a Missouri Institute of Mental Health, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
b George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
c Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States
d Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Indiana University School of Education, Bloomington, Indiana, United States

Abstract
Background: Trauma exposure has been linked to risky sexual behavior (RSB), but few studies have examined the impact of distinct trauma types on RSB in one model or how the association with trauma and RSB may differ across race. Purpose: The objective of the current study was to examine the contribution of trauma exposure types to RSB—substance-related RSB and partner-related RSB identified through factor analysis—in young Black and White adult women. Methods: We investigated the associations of multiple trauma types and RSB factor scores in participants from a general population sample of young adult female twins (n = 2,948). We examined the independent relationship between specific traumas and RSB, adjusting for substance use, psychopathology, and familial covariates. All pertinent constructs were coded positive only if they occurred before sexual debut. Results: In Black women, sexual abuse was significantly associated with substance-related and partner-related RSB, but retained significance only for partner-related RSB in a fully adjusted model. For White women, sexual abuse and physical abuse were associated with both RSB factors in the base and fully adjusted models. Witnessing injury or death was only associated with RSBs in base models. For both groups, initiating alcohol (for Black women), alcohol, or cannabis (for White women) before sexual debut (i.e., early exposure) was associated with the greatest increased odds of RSB. Conclusions: Data highlight the contribution of prior sexual abuse to RSBs for both White and Black women, and of prior physical abuse to RSBs for White women. Findings have implications for intervention after physical and sexual abuse exposure to prevent RSB, and thus, potentially reduce sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus infection and unintended pregnancy in young women. © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health

Document Type: Article in Press
Source: Scopus

"Return to learn: Transitioning to school and through ascending levels of academic support for students following a concussion" (2018) NeuroRehabilitation

Return to learn: Transitioning to school and through ascending levels of academic support for students following a concussion
(2018) NeuroRehabilitation, 42 (3), pp. 325-330. 

McAvoy, K.a , Eagan-Johnson, B.b , Halstead, M.c

a Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Lone Tree, CO, United States
b BrainSTEPS Program, New Castle, PA, United States
c Washington University Sports Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to familiarize healthcare providers and parents with educational language, laws, and processes as they relate to a comprehensive ascending level of academic supports as it pertains to promoting a smooth and supported transition to school following a concussion. BACKGROUND: Returning to learn (RTL) following a concussion is of parallel importance to returning to sport (RTS). A successful RTL is a critical part of concussion management. Many RTL articles advise healthcare providers and parents to request formalized educational supports, also known as Tier 2 or Tier 3 services, for children with concussion as they return to school. FINDINGS: Premature requests for formal (Tier 2 or 3) educational services, rather than allowing for immediate informal educational supports (known as Tier 1), can actually delay academic supports and have the potential to cause adversarial relationships between parents and schools. Additionally, this practice contradicts current research demonstrating the need for fast, flexible, temporary academic supports within the first month post-injury. CONCLUSION: Allowing school districts to direct the application of existing ascending levels of educational support for students with concussion as they return to school can promote robust and positive outcomes. © 2018 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
504 plan;  Concussion;  Individualized Education Plan (IEP);  Individualized Health Plan (IHP);  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA);  return to learn (RTL);  return to play (RTP);  return to sport (RTS);  Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus